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convention related to the status of the refugee also known as the 1951 Refugee
Convention. The Convention came into forced in 22 April 1954. This Convention
was amended in 1967 by the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees and
removed the geographical temporal limits of the 1951 Convention. This
convention grant rights to asylum and it was responsibility of every nations to
protect and grant some rights to the refugees. Convention also allow to visa
free travel for holders who issued travel documents under the convention. This
convention is based on the Article 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights (UDHR), which grant the rights of asylum. Article 1(A) 1951 Convention
as amended defines a refugee as

person who owing to a well-founded fear
of being persecuted for reasons
of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or
political opinion, is outside
the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is
unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not
having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual
residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is
unwilling to return to it.”

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Provisions of the 1951 Convention define the legal
status, rights and the duties of the refugee. Chapter one is related with
general provision like- general obligation (Article 2), non-discrimination
(Article3), religion (Article 4), rights granted apart from this convention
(Article 5), the term “in the same circumstances” (Article 6), exemption from
reciprocity (Article 7), exemption from exceptional measure (Article 8),
provisional measure (Article 9), continuity of residence (Article 10) and
refugee seamen (Article 11). Chapter two talked about judicial status of the
refugees, such as- personal status (Article 12), movable and immovable property
(Article 13), artistic rights and industrial property (Article 14), right of
association (Article 15) and access to court (Article 16). Chapter three of the
1951 Convention all about gainful employment, where talked about- wage-earning
employment (Article 17), self-employment (Article 18) and liberal professions
(Article 19). Similarly, chapter four is analyses about the welfare of the
refugee, such as- rationing (Article 20), housing (Article 21), public
education (Article 22), public relief (Article 23) and labour legislation and
social security (Article 24). Chapter five this convention is related with the
administrative measures like- administrative assistance (Article 25), freedom
of movement (Article 26), identity papers (Article 27), travel documents
(Article 28), fiscal charge (Article 29), transfer of assets (Article 30),
refugees unlawfully in the country of refugee (Article 31), expulsion (Article
32), prohibition of expulsion or return (Article 33) and naturalization
(Article 34). Chapter six is examined about executory and transitory provisions
like- co-operation of the national authorities with the UN (Article 35),
information on national legislation (Article 36) and relation to previous
conventions. Chapter seven is about the final clauses of the convention-
settlement of disputes (Article 38), signature, ratification and accession
(Article 39), territorial application clause (article 40), federal clause
(Article 41), reservations (Article 42), entry into force (Article 43), denunciation
(Article 44), revision (Article 45) and lastly the secretary- general of the UN
(Article 46).   

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