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The Act on Occupational Safety and Health at Workplaces, also known as the OSH Act, provides for a procedure to be followed by occupational safety and health authorities in monitoring compliance with provisions on occupational safety and health and on employment relationships. The Act also provides for a procedure on monitoring cooperation on occupational safety and health between employers and employees at workplacesThe goal of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and healthy work environment. OSH also protects co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment.In common-law jurisdictions, employers have a common law duty to take reasonable care of the safety of their employees. Statute law may in addition impose other general duties, introduce specific duties, and create government bodies with powers to regulate workplace safety issues.{1}In this assignment will discuss the health and safety issues covered by Sudan labor office and ministry of health in the act OSH 2007 and 1997 and explore the missed areas.SAFETY GENERAL PROVISIONSErgonomics at the workplace.(1) Machinery, equipment, personal protective equipment, appliances and hand tools used in all workplaces shall comply with the prescribed safety and health standards.(2) Every employer shall take necessary steps to ensure that workstations, equipment and work tasks are adapted to fit the employee.(3) Every manufacturer, importer and supplier or an agent of a manufacturer, importer and supplier of the machinery and equipment referred to in paragraph shall ensure that the equipment complies with the safety and health standards prescribed under this Act and shall provide adequate and Appropriate information including hazard warning signs.(4) An employer shall not require or permit any of his employees to engage in the manual handling or transportation of a load which by reason of its weight is likely to cause the employee to suffer bodily injury. {2}Safe means of access and safe place of employment.(1) All floors, steps, stairs, passages and gangways in a workplace shall be of sound construction and be properly maintained.(2) All openings in floors shall be securely fenced, except in so far as the nature of the work renders such fencing Impracticable.(3)There shall, so far as is practicable, be provided and maintained safe means of access to every place at which any Person has at any time, to work.(4) Necessary precautions including warning signs, shall be taken to prevent injury to employees and other persons at a Workplace from mobile plants falling objects and objects ejected from machines and work processes.(5) For every staircase in a building or affording a means of exit from a building, a substantial hand-rail shall be provided and maintained. {2}Fire prevention.(1)All stocks of highly inflammable substances shall be kept either in a fire-resisting store or in a safe place outside any occupied building.(2)Where highly flammable liquids are to be conveyed within a workplace they shall, where it is practicable so to do.(3)Where in any process or operation any highly flammable liquid is liable to be spilled or to leak, all reasonably practicable steps shall be taken to ensure that any highly flammable liquid, which is spilt.Precautions in places where dangerous fumes likely.(1)Where work has to be done inside any chamber, tank, vat, pit or other confined space, in which dangerous fumes are liable to be present(2)No person shall perform work in a confined space unless he is sufficiently trained and informed on hazards involved in confined spaces.Precautions with respect to explosive or inflammable dust or gas.(1) Where, in connection with any grinding, sieving or other process giving rise to dust, there may escape into any workroom.(2)Where there is present in any plant used in any process referred to in subsection(3) Where any part of a plant contains any explosive or highly flammable liquid, gas.(4) No plant, tank or vessel which contains or has contained any explosive or inflammable substance shall be subjected to any welding, brazing or soldering operation or to any cutting operation which involves the application of heat.{2}Safety provisions in case of fire.1) In every workplace or workroom there shall be provided and maintained, and conspicuously displayed and free from any obstruction so as to be readily accessible(2) Every workplace shall be provided with adequate means of escape, in case of fire, for the persons employed therein, having regard to the circumstances of each case.(4) The contents of any room in which persons are employed shall be so arranged that there is a free passageway for all persons working in the room to a means of escape in Case of fire. {2}2 CHEMICAL SAFETYThe handling, transportation and disposal of chemicals and other hazardous substances.(1)The Director shall, after consulting the Council, establish safety and health requirements based on risk assessments.(2)An employer shall not require or permit his employee to engage in the manual handling or transportation of a load which by reason of its nature is likely to cause the employee to suffer bodily injury.Material safety data sheets.(1) Every manufacturer, importer, supplier or distributor of chemicals shall make available to employers, material safety data sheets for chemicals and other hazardous substances.(2) A supplier of hazardous chemicals shall ensure that revised labels and chemical safety data sheets are prepared and provided to an employer whenever new and relevant Safety and health information becomes available.Control of air pollution, noise and vibration.(1) In every workplace in which, in connexion with any process carried on, there is given off any dust or fume or other impurity of such a character and to such extent as to be Likely to be injurious or offensive to the persons employed, or any substantial quantity of dust of any kind, all practicable Measures shall be taken to protect the persons employed Against inhalation of the dust.(2) No stationary internal combustion engine shall be used unless provision is made for conducting the exhaust gases from the engine into the open air.{2}Redeployment on medical advice.Where work involves exposure to air pollution, noise or vibration or any other adverse working conditions, a medical practitioner may recommend redeployment if he is of the opinion that the employee cannot continue working in that environment. {2}3-WELFARE-GENERAL PROVISIONSSupply of drinking water.(1) Every occupier shall provide and maintain an adequate supply of wholesome drinking water at suitable points conveniently accessible to all persons employed.(2) A supply of drinking water which is not laid on shall be contained in suitable vessels, and shall be renewed at least daily.Washing facilities.Every occupier shall provide and maintain for the use of persons employed, adequate and suitable facilities for washing.First-aid.Every occupier shall be provide and maintain so as tobe readily accessible, a first-aid box or cupboard of the prescribed standard.Work processes Meals in certain dangerous trades.No person shall be permitted to partake of food or drink where a poisonous or otherwise injurious substance is used so as to give rise to any dust or fume.Protective clothing and appliances.Every employer shall provide and maintain for the use of employees in any workplace where employees are employed in any process involving exposure to wet or to any Injurious.Protection of eyes in certain processes.Every employer shall provide suitable goggles or effective screens to protect the eyes of person employed. {2}Points from Sudan labor act 1997ORGANISATION OF EMPLOYMENTEstablishment of employment exchanges the minister may establish employment exchange and determine the areas or groups for the service.? EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND JUVENILESwomen shall be employed in works which are dangerous, demanding great bodily effort or prejudicial to health such as carrying heavy weights and work done under the ground or under water and also work which would expose them to The daily total rest intervals for women shall not be less than one hour with pay and the intervals shall be regulated.{3}* CONTRACT OF SERVICEWriting of the ContractAny contract which exceeds three months in duration shall be made in writing by the employer. Such contracts shall be written in three copies, signed by the two parties. Each party shall keep one copy and the third copy shall be deposited with The Commissioner.The contract made under sub-section shall not be deemed beneficial to the employer unless and until the worker takes cognizance of and signs it, either by writing his names or putting his thumb impression or stamp on it. He may call a witness to read the contract over and sign it by writing his name or impressing his thumb or stamp thereunder. {3}? WAGES, LOANS AND OTHER EMOLUMENTSGeneral provisions about payment of wagesThe wages of the worker shall be paid in cash, and there may be exempted therefrom what is included into the wages.? WORKING HOURS AND LEAVESThe normal working hours shall be forty eight hours per week, or eight hours per day provided that an interval of not less than half an hour with pay shall be allowed during the working hours either for taking a meal or for rest.The competent authority may an order made by it after consultation with the Council; amend the weekly or the daily? INDUSTRIAL SAFETYEvery factory and every industry in any factory shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of this Act.- Appointment of Industrial Safety Officers- Industrial Safety Committee- Reporting Accidents- Notification of workers with occupational dangers. {3}

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