Thegoal of this article is to employ the means of critical discourse analysis toverify the contribution made by authors’ documentaries to the discussion on thetopic of representation Italy in documentary movies.
My case studies include analyseof old and contemporary Russian and Italian cinematography as well a productiona documentary movie itself. The documentary movie I made, is a frameworkof the research question about documentary cinema about Italy, and deals with arange of issues regarding portrait genre issues, migration in Italy, problemsof “The Russian Abroad society” and the representation of Italian culturethrough documentary films. The article will take a closer look at documentarygenres and their development through historical events, different ways ofproducing films and the main differences in representing Italy by Russian and foreignmovie directors. The main genres have been jointly analysed with the visualconstruction on-screen since they both participate in the meaning-makingprocess of the documentary as a whole.
IntroductionBackground. The relevance of my creativeresearch is grounded in the novelty of the comparison two documentary cinemaschools, as well as the understanding of the differences in representationItaly by Russian and Italian movie directors. As my project is not only thetext and film analyzing, but also the producing a documentary movie itself, theproject reveals to be new to study and carries a great value.Problem statement.
The complexity of the perception documentary cinema and highlighting themain features, expressed in the difference between the representations of Italyby two different countries, reveals to the necessity of my creativity research.Proceeding from the fact that my diploma project is a movie itself, and alsorelying on the relevance of the topic and the main purpose of my course, I setmyself three practical tasks. The first one was to define the concept ofRussian and Italian documentary cinema in the context of historical changes, aswell as to describe all the features of perception and implementation ofvarious genres of non-feature films. The second task was to highlight thefeatures in the differences between representing Italy by Russian and foreignermovie directors. The third task consisted in the direct study of the productiontechnology of documentary films and the creation of a film of its own. It wasnecessary to structure the process of preparing for the shooting, prescribingthe drama of the film, and also to reveal the style of genre features to createa documentary portrait movie. Professional Significance.
The theme of creativeresearch in this formulation, in which I presented it, is considered for thefirst time. And, despite the high degree of development studies of documentaryfilms in general, the comparison of Russian authors’ documentary cinema to theItalian one is unusual and unique. Therefore, based on the theories andpractices already studied, my research claims to be novel and useful in cinema studiesin general and in combination of different techniques and practices.Delimitations of the study.
This field of studies reveals to the approach of allthe existing film genres and their historical changes in the Russian and Italiandocumentary cinema. What is more, the goal of my practical creative research isto prove the need of combining technologies of documentary film producing bytwo different countries and theirs’ cinema schools, as well as understandingthe differences of “self-country” and foreign representation for amore complete disclosure of the image of the country and movie-dramaturgy. Inthe framework of Russian author’s documentary cinema, a portrait as one of thegenres allows to reveal the image of country through a personality of themovie-hero by reflecting the specific character of the hero’s behavior, hisperception of reality and accents in cultural values, due to which the drama ofthe film becomes part of the portrait genre.
This is how I personally constructed the imageof Italy in my documentary movie. So in my research study I appeal to theportrait genre as well as to the historical and cultural background of thecountry. Definitions of key terms.
Literature ReviewDespitethe fact that there is a lot of literature dedicated to the history and theoryof cinematography, as well as scientific and artistic works about documentaryand documentary films, the degree of elaboration of the topic is not high, becausethe topic, as I have formulated it, appears for the first time and requiresspecial analysis and additional knowledge. Sources that I used to write thediploma and prepare for the creation of the film are divided into two maingroups.Thefirst group consists of the works of theorists and practitioners of documentaryfilms (M. Rabiger, N. Abramov, S.
Drobashenko, H. Badley, Y. Khanyutin). Thesecond one includes works devoted to the creation of non-fiction films bydirecting editing (A. Sokolov, I. Voskresenskaya, L. Kuleshov, S.
Eisensteinand D. Arizhon). All the works on my list are unique and represent a holisticpicture of the production of documentary films — from the stage of the searchfor an idea, to the very implementation.Ifwe take the fact that the problem under investigation is unexplored and new tothe field of scientific knowledge, but is a part of the scientific media sector— documentary cinema, it turns out that the question of creating a documentarymovie is correlated with the study of cinematography as a whole.Thefirst vivid try to “catch the moment” and do documentary was recordedin Canada by Robert Flaherty. “The ethnographer and director filmed thesimple everyday life of the 1 family “Nanuk from the North” in 1922.It is from this film that the concept of “chronicle of long-termobservations” is introduced.
” (Kolosov S. Documentality of thelegend. Moscow: Art, 1977, 184 p.
)Asa lot of works are written about documentary films and there is no such personwho would not know what documentary is, but its significance in the life ofsociety varies depending on various factors and the understanding of this definitioncan be dramatically changed by one person or another.Inturn, the theorists and practitioners of cinema determine the documentary,relying on their own experience and knowledge. Chris Marker: “There aretwo initial positions in documentary films: on the one hand, it seems to bepredetermined what kind of reality it should be, and if it is not as it shouldbe, it is incorrect. On the other hand, the author’s attitude toward reality isrespected: it is accepted as it is “(Gerlinghaus G.
World documentaryfilmmakers in the battles of our time, M .:” Rainbow “, 1986 p. 63).John Grierson: “Documentary cinema seeks to use observations over thesurrounding world to create a certain understanding of it, its picture, tothink out and systematically display any properties of this world.
“(Gerlinghaus G. World documentary filmmakers in the battles of our time(Moscow: Rainbow, 1986 – p.41). Miakhil Yampolsky: “Documentary is a movieusing the material of reality itself, but at the same time the hyperactingpresence of the author, the creator of this unrealized reality.”(Documentary yesterday, today, tomorrow. (Based on materials of internationalsymposiums of documentalists, Jurmala, 1977- 1989) Collection of shorthandrecords Ch.
Z p.21)Havingstudied the bibliography and specialized literature, I realized that there isno single typology of documentary cinema, which is connected with theundeveloped theory of this art. Usually documentary films are divided intochronicles, artistic documentary, publicist and propagandistic. However, inthis division there are a number of contradictions. That is why in my diplomaproject before creating the movie itself I decided to put much more attentionto the deep meaning of the film, rather then strictly match in a certaindocumentary genre. As any other visualfilm product, documentaries are based on the complex interplay between images,sounds and words.
That’s is why for me it was necessary for my audience toexperience all the visual, audio, and narrative aspects of the filmsimultaneously, getting the whole image of the hero and his surroundings.MethodsAsfar as the object of my research is the authors’ documentary cinema,represented through the Russian and Italian documentary movies and creating myown documentary film, and subject — the technology of producing a documentary,showing the image of Italy in authors’ documentary. Thehero of my documentary movie had created his own printing technique, whichallows to print any digital photography by hands, as well as he had migrated toVenice and settled there, so to show and describe it, as well as to prepare theshootings, produce the dramaturgy and manage the film montaging, I usedempirical methods. First of all, they were observation and interviews with thehero and people close to him, shooting studio and atelier, in which my hero didart. Mytheoretical methods — analyzing existing Russian and Italian documentary moviesand observation the literature, allowed me to chose a technological analysis ofthe documents for directing and film editing, which were necessary to establishthe collaboration of the documentary movie genres and historical periodizationof Russian and Italian cinema.Theempirical base of the research was author’s documentary films, both Russian andItalian, as well as interviews with filmmakers, producers and critics ofdocumentary films. As my project is more creative, then scientific, I did alsothe film review to encourage the main goals and topics of the documentaryfilmmakers, taking into account 3 Italian documentaries and 2 Russian one aboutItaly. So first of all was the Bartolomeo Pampaloni’s hand-held shot debut”Roma Termini” (2014), in which the author showed the underground Rome and its’contemporary society.
The second one, related to the theme of migration andsocial problems was Fire at Sea (Italian: Fuocoammare) (2016) by GianfrancoRosi. In this case, one of the most well-known and awarded Italian documentaryin the world represents signs of hope in an otherwise grim movie of the realtoday peoples’ sufferings of the political situation in the world. The thirdItalian documentary is preserved by a snapshot of modern Italian life in amovie “Happy Winter” by Giovanni Totaro.
This documentary by Siciliandirector focuses on the human fauna of an Italian beach, showing normal insidelife of the common things. Russian documentaries are more personalized in thecase of the movies, I have selected. In 1993, movie directors Yelena Yakovichand Alexei Shishov made a two-part documentary “Walking withBrodsky”, which was dedicated to the famous russian poet and the NobelPrize winner, who introduced to the viewer his favorite places and reasonedabout “the Russian abroad society and himself”. The seconddocumentary, aslo about the Venice’ inside world is “Garden Hidden” (2007) byTatyana Danilyants, that talks to common venetians and appeal to their’everyday life. Results AnticipatedAsa result, firstly, I have created a unique product — a documentary movie in portraitgenre representing the migration in Italy and the country itself through thehero and secondly, I brought out the comparison of two greatest film schools ofRussia and Italy in the documentary cinematography.
ConclusionIn both countries documentaries is a well-establishedgenre with a long tradition in public service broadcasting (Aufderheide 2007). This layer of modern culture, the interaction of the documentarymovies, which in recent years is actively developing in Italy, practically doesnot reach our viewer. In the opinion of some scholars, author’s documentarycinema is more realistic because there are no deviations in the cinema — moviedirector represents the reality he sees and the only one, that exists. Thoughtall the other cinema genres reconstruct the reality, they modify it, imagine,create or destroy at all. Only the taste of the author determines some featuresof the movie, and in my opinion, it is the only right way to make movies.”Author’s documentary cinema is a genre that reflects the reality in realtime” (Vertov D. The decree of the sob .
.) That is why I have chosen tomake an author’s documentary movie.The periodization of documentary films and studies ofthe laws of its development reveal the special genres of this cinematography,which turns off both aesthetic and transformational aspects of thepossibilities of documentary. Unlike conventional cinematography, indocumentaries there are no “predicted” scenes and staged shootings.This is an art that requires specific script writing by the director and thetransformation of this script during the filming. Genre features suggest adifferent interpretation of socially political life, a subjective analysis ofcurrent events and an honest dialogue with the viewer.During very productive practical work, I reviewed allthe research tasks that I set by theoretical and practical methods. My creativeresearch can be used in studying the cultural differences and similarities ofthe peoples of the world, as well as in acquaintance with the author’sdocumentary cinema by interested people.
Analysis of the cinematography, itsinterpretation — are the most important base for studying cinema. So, thisproject can be used also in the framework of training courses on the historyand implementation of documentaries and the study of its current state.The scientific certainty of this research is providedby the analysis of reliable sources on the history of documentary films,acquaintance with the majority of the mentioned films (often the advantage wasgiven to the films viewed in order to avoid inaccuracies connected with theirforeign interpretation), conversations with experts in the field of documentaryfilms.
On the whole, Italy is represented mostly thought people,not just historical and cultural events, as all the television documentaryfilms rely on. Authors’ documentaries appeal to different approaches of humanlives in this country and use the portrait genre as the main point of creatingfilms. Thought, the main difference between Russian authors documentary andItalian one is the importance of the visual part of the film. While Italianfilmmakers visualize the story and use minimum of the dialogues and audiorecordings as an emotional discourse medium, Russian films are full ofinformation, which sometimes interrupt the visual part.
For them, the greatmeaning of the film becomes more important than just “beautifulpicture”, so the story arises entirely on a different, deeper level ofunderstanding than simply visual. This is a direct result of the cinematographydevelopment through history in different countries, their historicalbackground, as well as the difference in film schools, because whereas modernRussian documentaries grew on the Soviet cinema, the first Italiandocumentaries appeared after the neo-realists.