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goal of this article is to employ the means of critical discourse analysis to
verify the contribution made by authors’ documentaries to the discussion on the
topic of representation Italy in documentary movies. My case studies include analyse
of old and contemporary Russian and Italian cinematography as well a production
a documentary movie itself. The documentary movie I made, is a framework
of the research question about documentary cinema about Italy, and deals with a
range of issues regarding portrait genre issues, migration in Italy, problems
of “The Russian Abroad society” and the representation of Italian culture
through documentary films. The article will take a closer look at documentary
genres and their development through historical events, different ways of
producing films and the main differences in representing Italy by Russian and foreign
movie directors. The main genres have been jointly analysed with the visual
construction on-screen since they both participate in the meaning-making
process of the documentary as a whole.



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Background. The relevance of my creative
research is grounded in the novelty of the comparison two documentary cinema
schools, as well as the understanding of the differences in representation
Italy by Russian and Italian movie directors. As my project is not only the
text and film analyzing, but also the producing a documentary movie itself, the
project reveals to be new to study and carries a great value.

Problem statement. The complexity of the perception documentary cinema and highlighting the
main features, expressed in the difference between the representations of Italy
by two different countries, reveals to the necessity of my creativity research.
Proceeding from the fact that my diploma project is a movie itself, and also
relying on the relevance of the topic and the main purpose of my course, I set
myself three practical tasks. The first one was to define the concept of
Russian and Italian documentary cinema in the context of historical changes, as
well as to describe all the features of perception and implementation of
various genres of non-feature films. The second task was to highlight the
features in the differences between representing Italy by Russian and foreigner
movie directors. The third task consisted in the direct study of the production
technology of documentary films and the creation of a film of its own. It was
necessary to structure the process of preparing for the shooting, prescribing
the drama of the film, and also to reveal the style of genre features to create
a documentary portrait movie.

Professional Significance.
The theme of creative
research in this formulation, in which I presented it, is considered for the
first time. And, despite the high degree of development studies of documentary
films in general, the comparison of Russian authors’ documentary cinema to the
Italian one is unusual and unique. Therefore, based on the theories and
practices already studied, my research claims to be novel and useful in cinema studies
in general and in combination of different techniques and practices.

Delimitations of the study. This field of studies reveals to the approach of all
the existing film genres and their historical changes in the Russian and Italian
documentary cinema. What is more, the goal of my practical creative research is
to prove the need of combining technologies of documentary film producing by
two different countries and theirs’ cinema schools, as well as understanding
the differences of “self-country” and foreign representation for a
more complete disclosure of the image of the country and movie-dramaturgy. In
the framework of Russian author’s documentary cinema, a portrait as one of the
genres allows to reveal the image of country through a personality of the
movie-hero by reflecting the specific character of the hero’s behavior, his
perception of reality and accents in cultural values, due to which the drama of
the film becomes part of the portrait genre.  This is how I personally constructed the image
of Italy in my documentary movie. So in my research study I appeal to the
portrait genre as well as to the historical and cultural background of the

Definitions of key terms.

Literature Review

the fact that there is a lot of literature dedicated to the history and theory
of cinematography, as well as scientific and artistic works about documentary
and documentary films, the degree of elaboration of the topic is not high, because
the topic, as I have formulated it, appears for the first time and requires
special analysis and additional knowledge. Sources that I used to write the
diploma and prepare for the creation of the film are divided into two main

first group consists of the works of theorists and practitioners of documentary
films (M. Rabiger, N. Abramov, S. Drobashenko, H. Badley, Y. Khanyutin). The
second one includes works devoted to the creation of non-fiction films by
directing editing (A. Sokolov, I. Voskresenskaya, L. Kuleshov, S. Eisenstein
and D. Arizhon). All the works on my list are unique and represent a holistic
picture of the production of documentary films — from the stage of the search
for an idea, to the very implementation.

we take the fact that the problem under investigation is unexplored and new to
the field of scientific knowledge, but is a part of the scientific media sector
— documentary cinema, it turns out that the question of creating a documentary
movie is correlated with the study of cinematography as a whole.

first vivid try to “catch the moment” and do documentary was recorded
in Canada by Robert Flaherty. “The ethnographer and director filmed the
simple everyday life of the 1 family “Nanuk from the North” in 1922.
It is from this film that the concept of “chronicle of long-term
observations” is introduced.” (Kolosov S. Documentality of the
legend. Moscow: Art, 1977, 184 p.)

a lot of works are written about documentary films and there is no such person
who would not know what documentary is, but its significance in the life of
society varies depending on various factors and the understanding of this definition
can be dramatically changed by one person or another.

turn, the theorists and practitioners of cinema determine the documentary,
relying on their own experience and knowledge. Chris Marker: “There are
two initial positions in documentary films: on the one hand, it seems to be
predetermined what kind of reality it should be, and if it is not as it should
be, it is incorrect. On the other hand, the author’s attitude toward reality is
respected: it is accepted as it is “(Gerlinghaus G. World documentary
filmmakers in the battles of our time, M .:” Rainbow “, 1986 p. 63).
John Grierson: “Documentary cinema seeks to use observations over the
surrounding world to create a certain understanding of it, its picture, to
think out and systematically display any properties of this world. ”
(Gerlinghaus G. World documentary filmmakers in the battles of our time
(Moscow: Rainbow, 1986 – p.41). Miakhil Yampolsky: “Documentary is a movie
using the material of reality itself, but at the same time the hyperacting
presence of the author, the creator of this unrealized reality.”
(Documentary yesterday, today, tomorrow. (Based on materials of international
symposiums of documentalists, Jurmala, 1977- 1989) Collection of shorthand
records Ch.Z p.21)

studied the bibliography and specialized literature, I realized that there is
no single typology of documentary cinema, which is connected with the
undeveloped theory of this art. Usually documentary films are divided into
chronicles, artistic documentary, publicist and propagandistic. However, in
this division there are a number of contradictions. That is why in my diploma
project before creating the movie itself I decided to put much more attention
to the deep meaning of the film, rather then strictly match in a certain
documentary genre.  As any other visual
film product, documentaries are based on the complex interplay between images,
sounds and words. That’s is why for me it was necessary for my audience to
experience all the visual, audio, and narrative aspects of the film
simultaneously, getting the whole image of the hero and his surroundings.MethodsAs
far as the object of my research is the authors’ documentary cinema,
represented through the Russian and Italian documentary movies and creating my
own documentary film, and subject — the technology of producing a documentary,
showing the image of Italy in authors’ documentary. The
hero of my documentary movie had created his own printing technique, which
allows to print any digital photography by hands, as well as he had migrated to
Venice and settled there, so to show and describe it, as well as to prepare the
shootings, produce the dramaturgy and manage the film montaging, I used
empirical methods. First of all, they were observation and interviews with the
hero and people close to him, shooting studio and atelier, in which my hero did
art. My
theoretical methods — analyzing existing Russian and Italian documentary movies
and observation the literature, allowed me to chose a technological analysis of
the documents for directing and film editing, which were necessary to establish
the collaboration of the documentary movie genres and historical periodization
of Russian and Italian cinema.The
empirical base of the research was author’s documentary films, both Russian and
Italian, as well as interviews with filmmakers, producers and critics of
documentary films. As my project is more creative, then scientific, I did also
the film review to encourage the main goals and topics of the documentary
filmmakers, taking into account 3 Italian documentaries and 2 Russian one about
Italy. So first of all was the Bartolomeo Pampaloni’s hand-held shot debut
“Roma Termini” (2014), in which the author showed the underground Rome and its’
contemporary society. The second one, related to the theme of migration and
social problems was Fire at Sea (Italian: Fuocoammare) (2016) by Gianfranco
Rosi. In this case, one of the most well-known and awarded Italian documentary
in the world represents signs of hope in an otherwise grim movie of the real
today peoples’ sufferings of the political situation in the world. The third
Italian documentary is preserved by a snapshot of modern Italian life in a
movie “Happy Winter” by Giovanni Totaro. This documentary by Sicilian
director focuses on the human fauna of an Italian beach, showing normal inside
life of the common things. Russian documentaries are more personalized in the
case of the movies, I have selected. In 1993, movie directors Yelena Yakovich
and Alexei Shishov made a two-part documentary “Walking with
Brodsky”, which was dedicated to the famous russian poet and the Nobel
Prize winner, who introduced to the viewer his favorite places and reasoned
about “the Russian abroad society and himself”. The second
documentary, aslo about the Venice’ inside world is “Garden Hidden” (2007) by
Tatyana Danilyants, that talks to common venetians and appeal to their’
everyday life.  Results AnticipatedAs
a result, firstly, I have created a unique product — a documentary movie in portrait
genre representing the migration in Italy and the country itself through the
hero and secondly, I brought out the comparison of two greatest film schools of
Russia and Italy in the documentary cinematography. ConclusionIn both countries documentaries is a well-established
genre with a long tradition in public service broadcasting (Aufderheide 2007). This layer of modern culture, the interaction of the documentary
movies, which in recent years is actively developing in Italy, practically does
not reach our viewer. In the opinion of some scholars, author’s documentary
cinema is more realistic because there are no deviations in the cinema — movie
director represents the reality he sees and the only one, that exists. Thought
all the other cinema genres reconstruct the reality, they modify it, imagine,
create or destroy at all. Only the taste of the author determines some features
of the movie, and in my opinion, it is the only right way to make movies.
“Author’s documentary cinema is a genre that reflects the reality in real
time” (Vertov D. The decree of the sob ..) That is why I have chosen to
make an author’s documentary movie.The periodization of documentary films and studies of
the laws of its development reveal the special genres of this cinematography,
which turns off both aesthetic and transformational aspects of the
possibilities of documentary. Unlike conventional cinematography, in
documentaries there are no “predicted” scenes and staged shootings.
This is an art that requires specific script writing by the director and the
transformation of this script during the filming. Genre features suggest a
different interpretation of socially political life, a subjective analysis of
current events and an honest dialogue with the viewer.During very productive practical work, I reviewed all
the research tasks that I set by theoretical and practical methods. My creative
research can be used in studying the cultural differences and similarities of
the peoples of the world, as well as in acquaintance with the author’s
documentary cinema by interested people. Analysis of the cinematography, its
interpretation — are the most important base for studying cinema. So, this
project can be used also in the framework of training courses on the history
and implementation of documentaries and the study of its current state.The scientific certainty of this research is provided
by the analysis of reliable sources on the history of documentary films,
acquaintance with the majority of the mentioned films (often the advantage was
given to the films viewed in order to avoid inaccuracies connected with their
foreign interpretation), conversations with experts in the field of documentary

On the whole, Italy is represented mostly thought people,
not just historical and cultural events, as all the television documentary
films rely on. Authors’ documentaries appeal to different approaches of human
lives in this country and use the portrait genre as the main point of creating
films. Thought, the main difference between Russian authors documentary and
Italian one is the importance of the visual part of the film. While Italian
filmmakers visualize the story and use minimum of the dialogues and audio
recordings as an emotional discourse medium, Russian films are full of
information, which sometimes interrupt the visual part. For them, the great
meaning of the film becomes more important than just “beautiful
picture”, so the story arises entirely on a different, deeper level of
understanding than simply visual. This is a direct result of the cinematography
development through history in different countries, their historical
background, as well as the difference in film schools, because whereas modern
Russian documentaries grew on the Soviet cinema, the first Italian
documentaries appeared after the neo-realists.

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