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Task 1:
describe the arrangement and operation of two different kinds of transmission
shafts and coupling, two different kinds of clutch and two different kinds of

What is a transmission shaft: The transmission is a
sophisticated mechanism while allowing a car to function at multiple speeds and
still maintaining the engine best performance within the rpm range.
Transmission shafts receive and transmit power to the output system and wheels.
Cold extrusion is understood as one of the manufacturing processes for the
production of automotive transmission shafts.   

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What is the input shaft: The transmission is an essential part
of the drivetrain of a vehicle. This is a sophisticated of the shafts and gears
that enable the controlled application of the power reasoning from the engine
to the wheels. The input shaft takes the engine into the gearbox system and
when a gear is engaged it withstands the torque generated and transmitted to
the output shaft. Steel forging of the input shafts allows the variant of shapes
and resistance needed to ensure reliable transmission system. Set forge
expertise covers the main manufacturing techniques to produce high-quality
input shafts for the automotive industry.  

What is the output shaft: The output shaft is a splined shaft that
is connected to the wheels. On the output shaft between is every pair of gears
in a collar. This is a round piece that is locked into the splines of the
output shaft. By being attached to the shaft in this way, the collar rotate
with the shaft, but can slide in different motions along the shaft splines.

What is the lay shaft: A lay shaft is an intermediate shaft
within a gearbox that carries gears, but does not transfer the primary drive of
the gearbox either in or out the gearbox. Lay shafts are known through the use
in car gearboxes, where they were in ubiquitous part of the rear-wheel drive
layout. With the shift to front-wheel drive. The driving shaft carries the
input power into the gearbox. The driven shaft is the output shaft from the
gearbox. The driven shaft is the output shaft from the gearbox. In the car
gearboxes are with lay shafts, these two shafts extruded from ends of the
gearbox. For gearboxes are generally mounted on a lay shaft may either turn
freely on fixed shaft, or may be part of that then rotates in bearings. 

What is a clutch: A clutch is a mechanical device
which involves and unfastens power transmission especially from the driving
shaft to driven shaft. Clutches connect and disengaged two rotating shafts. In
these devices, on shaft is typically attached to an engine or alternative power
unit while the other shaft provides output power for work. While typically the
motions are rotary, linear clutches are also possible. 

What is a friction clutch: A friction clutch conveys power by
virtue of friction developed between contacting surfaces. The friction surface
is normally flat and perpendicular to the axis of revolution.  Two surfaces are pressed together by using
compression spring. The friction force is used to bring the driven shaft to the
correct speed gradually without excessive slipping.

Advantages of the friction clutch:

engagement and minimum shock during use.

clutch can be involved by disengaged when the machine is running since they
have no jaw.

to operate.

clutch can act as a safety device. As the torque exceeds it slips which is the
safe value, thus protects the machine.

 What is a plate clutch: Plate clutch consist
of two overhangs, one of them is firmly keyed to the driving shaft, and the
other is free to slide along the driven shaft due to the splined connection. A
compression spring is used to press these overhangs (flanges) against and
torque is transmitted by friction. A suitable mechanism is provided to compress
the clutch spring to disengage the clutch.







What is a brake: A brake is a
mechanical device that enables motion by absorbing energy from a moving system.
It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel. Or to prevent
motion, used by friction. Most brakes mostly use friction between two surfaces
compressed together to convert the kinetic energy of the moving object into
heat, using the methods of energy conversion. 
For example regenerative braking converts the energy to electrical
energy. There are other methods to convert kinetic energy into potential energy
in the form of pressurized air. 

What are pumping brakes: pumping breaks are
usually used where a pump is part of the machinery. For example an internal-
combustion piston motor can stop the fuel supply, then internal pumping of the
engine creates friction (breaking). Some engines use a compressed engine brake
to gradually increase pumping desperation. Pumping breaks can usually use
energy as heat, or it be can regenerative brakes that recharge the pressure
reservoir called a hydraulic accumulator. 

What are electromagnetic brakes: electromagnetic
brakes are often used where an electric motor is part of the machinery. For
example, various petrol/electric cars usually use an electric motor as a
generator to charge the electric batteries and also regenerate the brake.
Variant amount of diesel/electric trains use the electric motors to generate
electricity which is then sent to a bank which is then used as heat.

What are disc brakes: a disc brake is a type of brake which uses clappers
and pads against a disc to produce friction. This motion retards the rotation
of a shaft, either to reduce its speed or to hold the vehicle motionless. The
energy of motion is converted into heat which is then dispersed.

What are drum brakes: A drum break is a
break which inhabits friction caused by a set of pads which press against a
rotating cylinder. The term drum break normally uses a break in which the pads
are pressed on the inner surface of the drum.  

What are couplings: A coupling is a
device which is used to connect two shafts together at their ends for the main
purpose of transmitting power. Couplings do not normally do not disconnect
during the shafts operation, however there are torque restricting couplings
which can slip or disconnect when some force is limit is exceeded.

What is a sleeve coupling: A sleeve coupling
consists of a pipe where bore is fixed to the right tolerance based on the
shafts geometric structure. If the coupling is used a lot a key way (a key is a
machine element used to convert a rotating machine element to a shaft) is made
in the bore in order to transmit the torque through the key. Two threaded holes
are provided in order to lock the coupling in position. sleeve coupling are
also known as box coupling in this coupling the shafts at the ends are coupled
together and touching against each other which are covered by a muff or

What is clamp coupling: This coupling is made of two halves parts
of the cast iron and they are joined together by the means of mild steel studs
or bolts. The advantages of this coupling is that the assembling of the
coupling is possible without change the position of the shaft. This coupling is
used for transmission at different speeds. 




2: compare and contrast the operation and use of flat plate clutches,
centrifugal clutches and fluid couplings in mechanical power


plate clutch: are widely used in cars. The plate are mainly used but
multi plate clutches are also most commonly used in motorbikes. The plate is
lined with a friction of a material which has a splined hole in its centre.
This will engage with the splines on the output shaft which will produce the


are centrifugal clutches: A centrifugal clutch is used in vehicles
and in other applications where the speed of the engine defines the condition
of the clutch. For example in a chainsaw the clutch system uses centrifugal
force to automatically engage the clutch when the engine rpm rises above the
limit and to automatically disengage the clutch when the engine rpm deprecates.


vs dry systems: A wet clutch is immersed in a cooling lubricating
fluid which also keeps the surfaces clean and provides smoother performance and
longer life. Wet clutches, however lose energy to the liquid, since the
surfaces of a wet clutch can be slippery. Clutch discs can allow for the lower
coefficient of friction which eliminates slippage under power when fully
applied. A dry clutch is not dipped in liquid and uses friction to engage.


are cone clutches: a cone clutch has conical friction surfaces. The
cones thickness means that an amount of movement of the actuator (makes the
surfaces depreciate in speed than a disc clutch. For example a cone clutch
example is a synchronizer ring in a manual transmission. The synchronizer ring
controls the speeds of the shifts and the gear to ensure a smooth gear

clutches: some clutches are designed for not to slip. Torque may
only be transmitted either fully engaged or disengaged to avoid detrimental
damage. An example if this is a dog clutch (is a type of clutch that couples
two rotating shafts or other rotating components,) mostly used in
non-synchromesh transmissions.  


are fluid couplings: A fluid coupling is a hydrodynamic device used
to transmit rotating mechanical power. It is used in auto transitions as an
alternative to a mechanical clutch. As a fluid coupling operates kinetically,
low viscosity fluids are used generally oils or transmission fluids are used.
Increasing the density of the fluid increases the amount of torque that can be
transmitted at a given input speed. However, hydraulic fluids like other oils
are subjected to change in viscosity with temperature change. This leads to
change in transmission performance. So when the performance has to be kept to a
minimum, oil or transmission fluid, with high viscosity should be applied. 


is a transmission: A transmission is a machine in a power
transmission system, which provide controlled application of power. This is
referred to as the gearbox and drivetrain which uses the gears and gear trains
to provide speed and torque from rotating power source to a device. There are
two types of transmission manual and automatic. A manual transmission is a type
of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It uses a driver operated
clutch engaged and disengaged foot pedal, for regulating torque transfer from
the engine to the transmission and a gear selector. An automatic transmission
is a type of transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the
vehicle moves. It allows an internal combustion engine, best designed to run at
a high rotational speed.



are mechanical power systems: usually refers to products used in
systems with motion parts as opposed to systems powered electrically. These
products included shaft couplings, chains and sprockets, belts and drive

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