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Table of Contents


Page number

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The topic


Cover Page


Table of




Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA)
concept in aircraft applications


Basic operation of Fuel Management


Fuel Management system in the Lear
jet 45 aircraft


Procedure of operational test of
Fuel Management system


Abnormal scenarios related to Fuel
Management system, their warning/caution indication in the cockpit along with
the remedial action


7. Conclusion


8. References














The IMA concept was introdu­ced by some of the main avionics
suppliers in the 1990s and initially applied to fighters and business/regional
jets. The first
commercial aircrafts to utilize IMA technology was the Boeing 777 with its
Airplane Information Management System (AIMS). The AIMS is the base of the
Boeing 777 and it consolidates essential navigation display, flight display,
EICAS display, flight planning, performance management, navigation, airplane
and engine observing, digital flight information obtaining, communications management,
and information transformation gateway functionalities into a single
coordinated system (Aleksa and Carter, 1997). Military aircrafts, for example,
the F-22 Raptor, F-35 and Dassault Rafale has likewise received the concept of
IMA. The Rafale utilizes a Modular Data Processing Unit (MDPU). This design has
flight management system, information combination, man-machine interfaces, fire
control, and so forth. The most up to date extends from Boeing, the 787
Dreamliner, and from Airbus, the A380, are exploiting IMA also.                                                                                                                         

Additionally, the two greatest space agencies of the world,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency
(ESA) are analyzing the concept of IMA.                                                                                                             


Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept in aircraft applications


The concept of integrated modular avionics (IMA) created because of
the great development in the electronics industry, raised functional complexity
in the avionics systems and require for smart modular and integrated systems.
The integrated modular avionics concept came in mid-90s because of great
investments made by the airline industries on more integrated
platforms. Also, the developing demand for products and services with
prerequisites more complex, joined with the offer of ability of computation and
communication at costs progressively littler, are stimulating industries as
space, automotive and aeronautics ones to move from dispersed unified architectures
to incorporated architectures. In view of that, the concept of IMA was created.
The focal perfect of IMA is the sharing of hardware; that is, numerous
applications having a similar operating unit. Hence, it is conceivable to decrease
the cost with processors, wiring, I/O, and so on. Other than that, other basic
goals of the aeronautics and space industries are fulfilled, for example,
decrease of size, weight, energy utilization and cost.                                                       

Figure 1: Integrated
Modular Avionics(IMA) system Integration process



Basic operation of Fuel Management system


A fuel
management system (FMS) makes forecasts about fuel remaining at each waypoint
along the route, and helps screen real fuel utilize as your flight advances.

A fuel
management system can assist to make the fuel calculations required for
in-flight decisions about potential routing, fuel stops, and redirections. A
fuel management system offers the positive side of exact fuel calculations with
regard to time, distance, winds, and fuel stream measured by other aircraft
systems. At the point when a route has been customized into the FMS, the fuel
management function is able for showing at present accessible fuel and aircraft
continuance and giving a gauge of fuel remaining as the aircraft crosses each waypoint
in the programmed route. As a fuel management function is helpful for making essential
fuel calculations, it as well as is helpful for drafting calculations performed
by the pilot. In the event that there are spills, plumbing breakdowns, or insufficient
leaning, the display of fuel can be deceptive. You should dependably land at
the earliest gauge indication of low fuel in the tanks, time of normal landing,
or any sign of fuel value disagreement with the flight planning. Errors can be determined
when the aircraft is safely on the ground.


Fuel management system or function


An advanced avionics
system that helps the pilot in managing fuel by considering fuel stream,
airspeed, and winds to assist foresee fuel remaining at each waypoint along the
customized route, total continuance, and the reasonability of alternative
routings or diversions. Stand-alone systems may coordinate the yield data into
the FMS/RNAV (an area navigation)  or give
a careful display, while the fuel management function is a fundamental part of
the FMS/RNAV system. In either example, the fuel data management objectives are
the same.

Avionics Systems

Some systems
integrate FMS/RNAV controls and display into available cockpit displays mostly known
as Primary flight displays (PFDs) and PFDs and multi-function displays (MFDs).In
this case, there is no separate display to point to and call the RNAV display.


Figure 2: Aircraft fuel management



Fuel Management system in the Lear jet 45 aircraft


The Learjet 45 has the direct
operation costs of a light jet, similar to a Cessna Reference
II (about $1,800 an hour); flies considerable
measure higher (51,000 ft.), farther (2,032
nautical miles with 4% and IFR saves)
and faster (534 m/h); and has a more agreeable cabin (410 ft3). Payload with full fuel is a respectable
1,600 pounds, and up to 500 pounds of stuff can be split amongst nose and toward
the back compartments. Indeed, the Learjet 45 is more similar to a medium
size cabin jet. In short, it conveys the comfort and performance of an airplane that
costs millions and more for that, most operators are willing to ignore a little inconvenience every once in a while.                                                                                                                             


In 1989 the work on the airplane started as a substitution
to the wildly well-known Learjet 35 series. The Model 45 was a
clean-sheet-of-paper design that influenced broad utilization of client focus group data, computer modeling and lean manufacturing
design. The roomy of aircraft, flat-floor cabin was outlined first, and afterward the rest airplane was built around it.                                                                     

The designers furnished the front
office with the most cutting-edge avionics of the day. The system is worked
around Honeywell’s Primus 1000. All navigation
information and flight are shown on
four big screens that join engine
instrument and crew alerting system data. The system permits support crews to download diagnostic information straightforwardly
to laptops, significantly speeding investigating of the avionics and engines.                                                         


Figure 3: Fuel
Management system in the Lear jet 45 aircraft


Procedure of operational test of Fuel Management system


5.1 Initial
Fuel Estimate

Many fuel management systems do not have a fuel quantity sensor.
Without access to this raw data of fuel quantity, fuel management systems
perform calculations utilizing a primarily fuel evaluate that was given by the
pilot before to flight.                               It is essential to
make exact assessments of introductory fuel because the fuel management work utilizes
this gauge in making expectations about fuel levels at future times during the
flight. For instance, if in the case that you overestimate the initial fuel by8
gallons and plan to arrive with 7 gallons of fuel of reserve, you may notes usual
fuel signs from the fuel management system, yet experience fuel exhaustion before
the finish of the flight.                                                                                                   

5.2 Estimating
Amount of Fuel on Board

As the fuel management function’s forecasts are frequently in view
of the initial amount entered, so it is important to screen the fuel gauges to guarantee
agreement with the fuel management capacity of the FMS as the flight
progresses. It is almost utilize to use the most moderate of these measures while
assessing fuel on board.                                                                                      

5.3 Predicting
Fuel at a Later Point in the Flight

An essential function of the fuel management system is to enable you
to forecast fuel remaining for a future in the flight. The fuel management
system utilizes a mix of the recently accessible fuel and the recent ate of
fuel utilization to reach at the measures. Some units need the current or assessed
fuel consume rate to be entered. Other units have optional sensors for fuel
flow and/or amount. Be absolutely aware of which equipment is introduced in
your particular aircraft and how to utilize it. As the rate of fuel utilization
instantly changes while power or mixture is modified, the fuel management system
should constant lyre fresh its expectations .It is normal for the fuel
management system to compute fuel remaining at the landing of the dynamic waypoint,
and the last waypoint in the route programmed into the FMS/RNAV.           

5.4 Determining

Most fuel management systems show the quantity of fuel remaining, additionally
the perseverance of the aircraft given the present fuel flow. Many systems display
the aircraft perseverance in minutes and hours.                                                                     

5.5 General Safety Practices that need to be observed during


1. Airport Authorities need more deliberate way to deal with and review
practices to guarantee all parts of turnaround methodology are consistently
surveyed, non-compliances recognized, remedial actions determined and suggestions
legitimately applied.                                                    2.
 Airlines require a systematic way to deal
with and observing their contractors.

3. Management Control (implements to all parties related with a turnaround):
A basic part of any safety management system is the control, observing and feedback
system. Consistent safety checks/reviews must be performed to guarantee understanding
and comprehension and consistence with standards and working systems.

4. Recording Spill Incidents: standard spill incident report was not
accessible as direction or to utilize. Subsequently, every airport authority or
fire service has built up their own format. For any future examination
including fuel spills, importance should be given for building a standard
format. A basic check list approach could be embraced.


5. Time Period for Keeping Spill Records: A fixed period must be put
into consideration for which the Airport Authority and/or the Fire Service
should to hold fuel spill reports. The period of maintenance seems to change from one
airport to another.

6. Organizations
refer some duty regarding safety and
health when practices conducted by contractors on their interest. Depending on standard conditions
the contractor to agree with related
health and safety rules is probably
not to be sufficient. Customers should find a
way to survey, monitor and control and co-ordinate the work that the parties do for their sake.                                                                                                              


Abnormal scenarios related to Fuel Management system, their
warning/caution indication in the cockpit along with the remedial action


The microbiological
contamination is the major abnormal scenario occur in fuel management system,
below the explanation of this issue  

Microbiological contamination of fuels can prompt issues in
operation such as metallic structures corrosion, problems in fuel quantity
indication, and the scavenge systems and fuel filters blocking during flight.
There are a different signs that help to determine that fuel tanks are
contaminated e.g., fuel filters contamination evidence, sump sample
discoloration, fuel injectors blocking, and inaccurate/erratic fuel level
readings. The erratic event of the fuel amount gauging system is an indication of
microbial contamination, as most gauging systems are capacitance-based and the
microbes have many capacitances than fuel. In all cases, this list is not comprehensive
and it is conceivable that a contaminated fuel tank will show none of these indications.
Microbes like yeast, fungi and bacteria can cause microbiological contamination
of light to center distillate fuels. These organisms are available in the
environment and hence can simply access the fuel supply system. The microbial
growth lives in water and feeds on the hydrocarbons in fuel.

Remedial action


The remediation
action regarding the biological contamination are mentioned here:

1-  Fuel System Drainage Fuel
system drainage is utilized to take out water from the fuel tank, do a check
for fuel contamination, perform a check for accumulation of ice,  take a sample of fuel for detecting microbial
growth, – perform a check of the water scavenge system, withdraw fuel to remove
fuel from a tank,  withdraw fuel from the
surge tanks to other the overload protection system, It is advised to drain the
water from all fuel tank sump drain every day.                                                                         


 2- Aircraft Fuel Tank Sumping Procedure: a)If the ambient temperature
is under 0°C, notes that the cold climate maintenance is taken. Note: Supply
hot air before you withdraw the sumps to ensure the fuel withdraws freely. b) Allow
the water to move to the base of the tank before you open the sump withdraw valve.
Wait as much as possible period of time after settling before you sump the fuel
tank. Water will move vertically with rate of one foot/hour. c) Sump all fuel
tanks: keep the upper end of an accepted sump withdraw tool opposite to the
sump drain poppet, keep the container under the sump withdraw valve,  push the sump withdraw tool up until the liquid
material flows toward the container until it become full. Note: In the case
that you cannot open the sump withdraw valve or liquid material does not withdraw
from the valve, water around the valve or in the valve can transform into ice.
So, perform the applicable cold weather maintenance (AMM).  Withdraw the sump until all of the point when
the majority of the free water is evacuated. Note: It might be important to withdraw
up to five gallons of fuel before water is determined. If the water in the fuel
sampler has a brown color, contains particles, or has foul smell, at that case do
a determination test for microbial contamination in relation with IATA procedure
for microbial contamination.                                                                             

 3- Biocide Treatment Biocide is a wide range antimicrobial agent intended
to prevent the growth of microorganisms in fuel tanks. The process needs a
biocide to be mixed at a particular concentration with fuel and permitted to
soak for some time. After soaking, the biocide dosed fuel is burned through the
engine. Biocides should be dissolvable in fuel, but as well as partition into
any free water that is available in the tank. These factors as the contact time,
a biocide concentration, and exposure temperature detects the a biocide
efficiency. At high concentrations biocide kill microbes, at lower
concentration stop their growth and can often feed them at very low


      7. Conclusion


This case study
provide an overview on Integrated Avionics System (IAS) in terms of its
operation, advantages, fuel management system, the abnormal events in fuel
management system and safety measures that should be taken and put in
confederation during maintenance.

The Integrated
Avionics System is a result of modern industry and advancement.

The fuel system
of aircraft is an important system and it plays a major role on storage,
managing and supplying the fuel to the engine of aircraft.       















      8. References


Aleksa, B.D., and Carter, J.P.( 1997). Boeing 777 Airplane Information
Management System Operational Experience, IEEE.

Alena, R.L., Goforth, A., Figueroa, F., Ossenfort, J., and Laws, K.I.( 2007).
Communication for Integrate Modular Avionics, IEEE Aerospace Conference.

– The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.( 2003 ). Fuel system. Encyclopedia
– The Free Dictionary                                               

– Fewtrell, P., Petrie,
A., Lines, I., Cowell, N., Livingston, A., and Jones, C.(2000). Quantified Risk Assessment of Aircraft
Fuelling Operations


– HUBER, M. (2007). learjet-45-45xr COTS

– U.S.

Standards Service. (2009). Advanced Avionics Handbook


– Nikolina, C. (2013). Fuel
Manual. CROATIA AIRLINES. Microsoft Word – OP-PSU-050_5_Fuel Manual.doc


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