Stem cell research have really impacted our lives and expanded our knowledge about the human body, even though there is still more to discover. The human body is a large puzzle that we are learning about every day and Stem cells are part of that puzzle that humans have discovered to help encourage the healthy functions of the body. Stem cells have improved our knowledge about the human body and they are used for research to help find treatments for different diseases such as blood diseases like leukemia; a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow. There are three different types of stem cells which are used by scientists for medical treatment and research and they are Adult stem cells(Tissue-Specific), Embryonic Cells(Pluripotent), and Induced Pluripotent, which are just regular cells that scientists take and change to make them behave like Embryonic cells. Stem cells have so much potential, they are the main focus for research on medical treatments and will continue to outgrow any arguments against it because of it’s benefits and new research. Stem cells are different from any other type of cell in the human body, they have the ability to renew themselves and divide over time to create new cells which can either choose to stay as a stem cell or change into a more specialized cell also known as differentiating.Some organs in the body suffer injuries which can damage cells, an example is the gut (gastrointestinal tract), this organ is both the small and large intestine system.Every 4 days the internal walls(villi) are replaced with a new lining and also repairs the damaged tissue or replace the worn out tissues in that system.
In other organs such as the pancreas and the heart, the cells would only able to divide under special conditions in those areas, but they still work in the same way to repair worn out tissues. Adult stem cells are tissue-specific or multipotent meaning they can change into some of the cells in the body but not any cells, but these cells are rare in the human body making it hard for scientists to collect. They do not persist as long as Embryonic cells. Embryonic cells are obtained from embryos when they are 5 days old having about 150 cells, during this stage the embryo is known as a blastocyst and isn’t visible to the naked eye. A blastocyst is a hollow sphere that consists of an inner and outer cell mass. The outer cell mass(trophoblast)would attach and become part of the placenta and then seperate from the inner cell mass,(embryoblast) which is a group of cells that will divide over time and become all the structures of an adult organism.
If the blastocyst were to continue until it attaches to the mother’s uterus then it would be considered a fetus, but when the blastocyst is extracted the inner cell mass is taken and placed into a culture dish that contains a broth that lacking the necessary stimulation to differentiate and divide to become any cell type in the human body. The undifferentiated cells are then stimulated to create specialized cells. Embryonic cells are used for In Vitro Fertilization(IVF), which is a process of fertilization when an egg is combined with a Sperm outside the body on a laboratory dish. This treatment is used for women with fertility problems.