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Sometimes, when the
consumer does not know how to behave, they copy other people who act as a
source of information for them. When consumers are not sure of their own
ability to know what to do, they will look to others to tell them. This is the
Informational influence.  However, when people aspire to be like some
groups or individuals to help them enhance their self-identity/concept, it’s
called Utilitarian influence. It is the compliance of the consumer with
perceived expectations of others. Whereas ways in which a consumer incorporates
a group’s values and joins groups in order to express his or her own closely
held values and beliefs is called value expressive influence. 

The practical
application of informational influence can be seen in the use of “expert power”
or their use in advertising. The views of Social media influencers and bloggers
in the Auto world can largely impact consumers attitude towards car sharing
memberships. Also, recommendations from reference groups will help consumers to
accept car sharing with a degree of confidence. “A McKinsey study found that
word-of-mouth influence doubles the sales with paid advertising and
boosts the customer retention rate by 37%” (, 2017). So,
informational influence can shift consumers attitude towards car sharing

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Some people strive
to make themselves associated with certain groups in order to remain acceptable
or to gain a position in society. By showcasing that consumer can gain a
position of virtue by using this product/service in marketing communications, car-sharing
memberships can be targeted for consumers who have some Utilitarian influence.
For this, car sharing has to be accepted in the society as a brand and not just
a Utility or service. Utilitarian influence will help shift a consumer’s
thinking about car ownership from status symbol to a means of access.

By knowing target
consumers attitudes, car sharing marketers can better anticipate their values,
lifestyles or outlook and can reflect these characteristics in their
advertising and direct marketing efforts. Consumers trying to follow a certain
lifestyle that focuses cars as a means of utility rather than just a status
symbol will influence other consumers to follow the same. This is how value
expressive influence can impact on consumers attitude towards car sharing
membership since value-expressive attitudes demonstrate an individual’s
self-image to others.

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