waste dumping system in the city is an open dumping system. As a result there
are environmental and social problems resulted from the dumping site. Several
of the sources of solid wastes are from household, market, agriculture and commercial
area and putted in an open dumping site, which may contain the components of
leachable toxic that are hazardous to the human health and to the environment,
at the dumping site without any separation and treatment. Moreover, the dumping
site is very close to the main road, and it has a low distance to Tnjaro river
and surrounded by residential houses hence resulted in societal problems like
health danger and environmental problems.
of the above, this study looks to adopt the best methodology for the selection
for landfill sites within the study area, as well as taking into considering
the natural, artificial factors and environmental factors. Using the results of
previous and present work, the following conclusions can be stated:
dumping of waste leads to many environmental problems, including surface and ground
water contamination, rodent, insect and disease infestation and others. Solid waste
is disposed of on the daily basis in Sulaymaniyah city by burning. This leads to
many population health problem in the city and villages near them.
value of solid waste generation rate 0.794 kg/ (capita· day) in 2016 based on
information of Sulaymaniyah Directory of Municipality with expected increment
rate in generation rate of (1.3) kg/ (capita· day) per year.
Sulaymaniyah city, the generation rate values in 2016 were (0.8065 and 0.86)
kg/ (capita· day) based on the results from the methods (1 and 2) respectively.
rate of solid waste Comparison with other studies puts Sulaymaniyah city as a
on expected increment rate in generation rate of (1.3) kg/ (capita· day) per
year, the value of generation rate in 2032 will be (1.057) kg/ (capita. day) in
Sulaymaniyah city respectively.
Annual quantities of solid waste generated in Sulaymaniyah city was 230,186
tonnes respectively when inhabitants of Sulaymaniyah city was 723,898 inhabitants
in 2017 correspondingly. With the population growing rate of 2.99%, the total
population in Sulaymaniyah city will reach to 1,126,168 inhabitants in 2032.
Table 5.1 shows the expected waste to be produced in 2032 and the cumulative
quantity of solid waste for the period 2020- 2032 in the methods first and
second correspondingly.7. The quantity
of solid waste generated in 2032 and the accumulative quantity of solid waste
2020-2032 in the method 2 were implemented to calculate the required landfill area,
where the value was derived from the method 2 has higher than the resulted value from the method
1. Depended on these result, the required area for candidate landfill in
Sulaymaniyah city is 2.438 km2.8. In
this study, fifteen map layers were used in the process of overlaying within
GIS and analysis in order to find the most suitable site for landfill in
Sulaymaniyah city. These map layers are water wells, slope, rivers, elevation,
soil types, land use, agricultural land use, military site, roads, power lines,
industrial area, airport, urban centers, archaeological sites and villages. .
The criteria used in this study are not fixed factors since they can vary from site
to site and these criteria can be changed accordingly in the analysis process.
weights of each criteria were determined utilizing AHP method, and after that the weights for
sub-criteria of all criterion were calculated depended on the opinions of
experts and produced previously supporting literature. To produce the
suitability index map for the landfill siting, applied the method of WLC on all criteria using “map algebra” in GIS in special
analysis tool. After the analysis process, in the “most suitable” category on
the final map in Sulaymaniyah city, two candidate sites were selected for
landfill between several sites. These selected sites were checked on the Google
earth to make sure that these sites were more suitable for landfill.