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Sociological
changes, new technology in industry and commerce, new building codes, other new
laws and regulations, inflationary economies of nations, and advances in
building technology place an ever-increasing burden on building designersand
constructors. They need more and more knowledge and skill to cope with
thedemands placed on them.

 

The
public continually demands more complex buildings than in the past. They must
serve more purposes, last longer, and require less maintenance and repair. As
in the past, they must look attractive. Yet, both building construction and
operatingcosts must be kept within acceptable limits or new construction will
cease.

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One
advance of note to building design is the adaptation of operations research,or
systems design, developed around the middle of the twentieth century and
originally applied with noteworthy results to design of machines and electronic
equipment. In the past, design of a new building was mainly an imitation of the
designof an existing building. Innovations were often developed fortuitously
and by intuitionand were rare occurrences. In contrast, systems design encourages
innovation.It is a precise procedure that guides creativity toward the best
decisions. Asa result, it can play a significant role in meeting the challenges
posed by increasingbuilding complexity and costs.

 

The
primary purpose of all kinds of structural systems used in the building type of
structures is to support gravity loads. The most common loads resulting from
the effect of gravity are dead load, live load and snow load. Besides these
vertical loads, buildings are also subjected to lateral loads caused by wind,
blasting or earthquake. Lateral loads can develop high stresses, produce sway
movement or cause vibration. Therefore, it is very important for the structure to
have sufficient strength against vertical loads together with adequate stiffness
to resist lateral forces.

 

Shear
wall are one of the excellent means of providing earthquake resistance to
multi-storeyed reinforced concrete building. The structure is still damaged due
to some or the other reason during earthquakes. Behaviour of structure during
earthquake motion depends on distribution of weight, stiffness and strength in
both horizontal and planes of building. To reduce the effect of earthquake
reinforced concrete shear walls are used in the building. These can be used for
improving seismic response of buildings.

 

Structural
design of buildings for seismic loading is primarily concerned with structural
safety during major Earthquakes, in tall buildings, it is very important to
ensure adequate lateral stiffness to resist lateral load. The provision of
shear wall in building to achieve rigidity has been found effective and
economical. When buildings are tall, beam, column sizes are quite heavy and
steel required is large. So there is lot of congestion at these joint and it is
difficult to place and vibrate concrete at these place and displacement is
quite heavy. Shear walls are usually used in tall building to avoid collapse of
buildings. When shear wall are situated in advantageous positions in the
building, they can form an efficient lateral force resisting system.

 

In
this project one model for bare frame type residential building and five models
for dual type structural system are generated with the help of ETAB and
effectiveness has been checked. 

 

1.1  
Principles of Architecture

 

A building is an
assemblage that is firmly attached to the ground and that provides total or
nearly total shelter for machines, processing equipment, performance of human
activities, storage of human possessions, or any combination of these.

Building
design is the process of providing all
information necessary for constructionof a building that will meet its owner’s requirements
and also satisfy publichealth, welfare, and safety requirements. Architecture
is the art and science ofbuilding design. Building construction is
the process of assembling materials toform a building.

 

Building
design may be legally executed only by persons deemed competent to do so by the
state in which the building is to be constructed. Competency is determined on
the basis of education, experience, and ability to pass a written test ofdesign
skills.

 

Architects
are persons legally permitted to
practice architecture. Engineers are experts in specific scientific
disciplines and are legally permitted to design parts of buildings; in some cases,
complete buildings. In some states, persons licensed as building designers are
permitted to design certain types of buildings.

 

1.2  
Systems Design And Analysis

 

Systems
design comprises a logical series of steps that leads to the best decisionfor a
given set of conditions.The procedure requires:

 

       
i.           
Analysis of
a building as a system.

     
ii.           
Synthesis or
selection of components, to form a system that meets specific objectives while
subject to constraints, or variables controllable by designers.

   
iii.           
Appraisal of
system performance, including comparisons with alternative systems.

    iv.           
Feedback to
analysis and synthesis of information obtained in system evaluation, to improve
the design.

 

The
prime advantage of the procedure is that, through comparisons of
alternativesand data feedback to the design process, systems design converges
on anoptimum, or best, system for the given conditions. Another advantage is
that theprocedure enables designers to clarify the requirements for the
building being designed.Still another advantage is that the procedure provides
a common basis ofunderstanding and promotes cooperation between the specialists
in various aspectsof building design.

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