Sociologicalchanges, new technology in industry and commerce, new building codes, other newlaws and regulations, inflationary economies of nations, and advances inbuilding technology place an ever-increasing burden on building designersandconstructors.
They need more and more knowledge and skill to cope withthedemands placed on them. Thepublic continually demands more complex buildings than in the past. They mustserve more purposes, last longer, and require less maintenance and repair. Asin the past, they must look attractive. Yet, both building construction andoperatingcosts must be kept within acceptable limits or new construction willcease.
Oneadvance of note to building design is the adaptation of operations research,orsystems design, developed around the middle of the twentieth century andoriginally applied with noteworthy results to design of machines and electronicequipment. In the past, design of a new building was mainly an imitation of thedesignof an existing building. Innovations were often developed fortuitouslyand by intuitionand were rare occurrences.
In contrast, systems design encouragesinnovation.It is a precise procedure that guides creativity toward the bestdecisions. Asa result, it can play a significant role in meeting the challengesposed by increasingbuilding complexity and costs. Theprimary purpose of all kinds of structural systems used in the building type ofstructures is to support gravity loads. The most common loads resulting fromthe effect of gravity are dead load, live load and snow load. Besides thesevertical loads, buildings are also subjected to lateral loads caused by wind,blasting or earthquake. Lateral loads can develop high stresses, produce swaymovement or cause vibration. Therefore, it is very important for the structure tohave sufficient strength against vertical loads together with adequate stiffnessto resist lateral forces.
Shearwall are one of the excellent means of providing earthquake resistance tomulti-storeyed reinforced concrete building. The structure is still damaged dueto some or the other reason during earthquakes. Behaviour of structure duringearthquake motion depends on distribution of weight, stiffness and strength inboth horizontal and planes of building. To reduce the effect of earthquakereinforced concrete shear walls are used in the building.
These can be used forimproving seismic response of buildings. Structuraldesign of buildings for seismic loading is primarily concerned with structuralsafety during major Earthquakes, in tall buildings, it is very important toensure adequate lateral stiffness to resist lateral load. The provision ofshear wall in building to achieve rigidity has been found effective andeconomical. When buildings are tall, beam, column sizes are quite heavy andsteel required is large.
So there is lot of congestion at these joint and it isdifficult to place and vibrate concrete at these place and displacement isquite heavy. Shear walls are usually used in tall building to avoid collapse ofbuildings. When shear wall are situated in advantageous positions in thebuilding, they can form an efficient lateral force resisting system. Inthis project one model for bare frame type residential building and five modelsfor dual type structural system are generated with the help of ETAB andeffectiveness has been checked. 1.1 Principles of Architecture A building is anassemblage that is firmly attached to the ground and that provides total ornearly total shelter for machines, processing equipment, performance of humanactivities, storage of human possessions, or any combination of these.Buildingdesign is the process of providing allinformation necessary for constructionof a building that will meet its owner’s requirementsand also satisfy publichealth, welfare, and safety requirements.
Architectureis the art and science ofbuilding design. Building construction isthe process of assembling materials toform a building. Buildingdesign may be legally executed only by persons deemed competent to do so by thestate in which the building is to be constructed. Competency is determined onthe basis of education, experience, and ability to pass a written test ofdesignskills. Architectsare persons legally permitted topractice architecture. Engineers are experts in specific scientificdisciplines and are legally permitted to design parts of buildings; in some cases,complete buildings.
In some states, persons licensed as building designers arepermitted to design certain types of buildings. 1.2 Systems Design And Analysis Systemsdesign comprises a logical series of steps that leads to the best decisionfor agiven set of conditions.The procedure requires: i.
Analysis ofa building as a system. ii. Synthesis orselection of components, to form a system that meets specific objectives whilesubject to constraints, or variables controllable by designers. iii.
Appraisal ofsystem performance, including comparisons with alternative systems. iv. Feedback toanalysis and synthesis of information obtained in system evaluation, to improvethe design.
Theprime advantage of the procedure is that, through comparisons ofalternativesand data feedback to the design process, systems design convergeson anoptimum, or best, system for the given conditions. Another advantage isthat theprocedure enables designers to clarify the requirements for thebuilding being designed.Still another advantage is that the procedure providesa common basis ofunderstanding and promotes cooperation between the specialistsin various aspectsof building design.