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Siberian TundraNikolai Shervashidze10/2Ms.Chandra1.IntroductionThe siberian tundra also known as the arctic tundra is the biggest tundra in the world, since it covers one fifth of the world. It located in the northern hemisphere and it’s covers the territory of the Russian Federation It’s a part of the Tundra Biome. You can tell this, first by its name and second by the cold weather and its location, the lack of trees, the poor nutrition, and the extreme low temperatures. The siberian tundra is known for its extreme low temperatures, the limitation of drainage, low diversity of life, simple structure of the vegetation and a very short time in which the animals and plants reproduce.2.Ecosystem Ecology This is a energy pyramid that shows what amount of energy is transferred from the the bottom level to the upper levels. At the bottom of the pyramid there is a producer, in this case a arctic willow. This level has 100 percent of energy and if the plant is eaten by a primary consumer such as the arctic hare it will transfer only 10 percent of its energy to the herbivore. In case that the herbivore gets eaten by a secondary consumer, a wolverine for example, only 1 percent of the consumer’s energy will get to the wolverine. Finally if the wolverine gets eaten by a polar bear, which is a tertiary consumer, the bear gets 0,1 percent of the energy that producer had. picture gives us perspective of what the food chain, in the siberian tundra looks like. We can see that there are producers and consumers. The producers consist of the arctic willow and the blueberry, which are both plants. Then the primary consumers come- arctic hare, musk ox, caribou, and the lemmings, that are all herbivores. Then there are secondary consumers, which are all carnivores like the gray wolf , the snowy Owl, and the polar bear.The energy pyramid and the food chain are very important for the life in the tundra, because they show how energy is transferred from organisms through the chain. This can tell scientists how to keep the food chains in their original order and how not to damage it. If the food chain or the energy is disturbed in some way this can cause serious trouble to the biome itself. 3. Keystone speciesA keystone specie is a type of animal that in some way controls the population of the biome they live in. Sometimes this animals is a predator that lets an entire spicie expand by hunting another one, or it can be a simple animal like the beaver, that can stop and change the flow of rivers, thus saving populations of biome inhabitants. In the tundra such animal is the arctic fox, unfortunately for it. The arctic fox is a pray to a variety of predators in the tundra, so if it disappears it won’t only hurt its own species, but a five more types of animals that rely on the fox for food.There are many type of interactions in the arctic tundra, because animals of the different species fight of help each other in order to survive. Such pair is the the caribou and the musk ox. Those two animals fight over territory on which the plant they eat are located. This is a competition between the species, which decides who lives and who starves to death. Another pair of animals that interact with each other are the arctic fox and the polar bear. The polar bear lets the fox eat what is left of their kill and doesn’t mind it, because the fox can’t danger the bear. This type of interaction is a cooperation, which lets the both species live. The last example of interaction is between the gray wolves and the polar bears, which fight over hunting territories in the grasslands of the tundra. This is interaction is competition, between the species, so they could have the chance to hunt and eat. There are many inhabitants in the arctic tundra and for them every day is a struggle for survival. That is why many of the animals had to adapt in order to survive the harshest conditions of the treeless grasslands. For example the musk ox adapts by adding a extra layer of fur on its body. One of the layers is long and the other is short and the air gets trapped in between them, which protects the ox from the air and water. Another type of adaptation is of the blueberry plant, which grows low and likes to grow between rocks, which thats lets it to stay out of the way of the strong, cold air of the arctic tundra. It also helps the plant keep moisture and keep its heat in order so that it survives. 4. Population ecology The arctic willow is a very common plant in the tundra and many inhabitants rely on it for food. It can be found in the northern hemisphere where the climate is very harsh and the temperatures are much below zero. The arctic willow prefers the cold, dry open areas,sedge meadows, pools, and muddy flats where there is sandy soil. This plant prefers the cold harsh conditions of the tundra, and that is why it can be only found in this part of the world, so the distribution of the arctic willow is not common, but very specific since the the plant has adapted to the conditions of the siberian grasslands.. 5.Climate changeA huge disturbance that is happening in the tundra is the global warming. Global warming may eliminate vast areas of arctic regions in the world, including the siberian tundra. The main concern is that due to the global warming the ice caps will melt, and the animals will be left with no habitat to live in, and the second concern is that the air will get polluted, which will kill off the lichen. lichen is a plant that is a main food source for many animals living in the tundra, so by decreasing its numbers a lot of animals will be left without food. This will damage both the food chain and the energy pyramid, since it will eliminate or decrease the population of producers, which will be crucial for the inhabitants of the biome. Since this will be a big scale disturbance it’ll affect the ecosystem very much, because as I mentioned above it will bring disturbance in the food chain. Therefore it’ll be very hard to find any solution for this problem. However there is still chance to protect the biome, by restricting areas and parks where the animals will live uninfluenced by the activities of the people and to find a alternative resource, so there is a chance to stop the melting of ice caps. If we don’t do anything the nature wont be able to the disturbance. That’s because the global warming is not occurring naturally in the tundra, thus the nature will have little chance to recover from the disturbance, because it’s developing very rapidly, which again is not natural, which means that the animals and plants will have limited time to adapt and react to it. In conclusion, if we don’t stop  the melting of the ice caps, the ecosystem will be negatively impacted and a lot of inhabitants will lose their homes and even their lives.6. Conclusion The siberian tundra or also the arctic tundra is located in the most northern part of the world and because of it has one of the most harshest conditions to live. There the temperatures are freezing and the inhabitants have adopted to those conditions, so they could survive. The tundra is functional ecosystem thanks to the many species there that form the food chain and the energy pyramid, which show us the nutrient cycle of the animals and plants. All the inhabitants have a role in sustaining the biome, because they are building the food chain, as a producers, consumers or a keystone species. The human race should try their best to protect the biome so the natural order is not damaged. If damaged, the inhabitants of the tundra may decrease in numbers or even disappear forever.MLA:

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