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shirkah, shirkat?A contract between two or more
people where they enter into a financial agreement whereby the decision making,
investment and profits are shared, although not necessarily equally. One
party’s investment need not be financial, for example – they could be providing
time or expertise in return for a share of the profits (shirkat-ul-aamal). It is usually divided
into two types: shirkat-ul-milk
(a joint ownership between parties, where each party has provided capital) and shirkat-ul-‘aqd (any
partnership created through a contract or a joint commercial enterprise).
Shirkah has a wider and more general meaning than musharakah, which also means sharing.

shirkat-al-mufawada?A
partnership where all aspects, including investment, time spent in management,
risk and profits are equal for all parties.

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shirkat-ul-aamal, shirkat-ul-a’mal?A partnership where all
parties invest either capital or a service, and each receives a share of the
profits as determined in the contract.

shirkat-ul-ainan?A
partnership where some aspects are equal but others are not, for example if two
partners each invest half of the capital but the profits are shared 60% and
40%. This would usually apply where one person was more involved with the
management or had more expertise than the other, for example.

shirkat-ul-amwal?A
partnership where all parties invest capital as opposed to services or other
things of tangible or intangible value.

shirkat-ul-‘aqd, shirkah-ul-‘aqd?A joint commercial
enterprise, where two or more parties share a mutual contract.

shirkat-ul-milk, shirkah-ul-milk?Joint ownership of a
property. This can come about either by choice (where two or more people decide
to embark on a venture, known as ikhtiari)
or it may be imposed on someone (for example, if a person inherits ownership
after a death, known as ghair
ikhtiari).

shirkat-ul-wujooh?A
partnership of goodwill, whereby the parties purchase commodities and sell them
there and then,  distributing the profits
to an agreed ratio.

short?A commonly
used verb synonymous with short
selling.

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