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Several types of ultrasonic horns were developed so
far. Models based on different approaches and techniques have been constructed
to enhance the process performance and efficiency. In order to find out the
optimized set of input parameters and also to identify the effect of each
towards a particular output, researchers have been trying for years together. A
brief review on literature on ultrasonic horn designing and modal, harmonic
simulation by ANSYS also development of mathematical model is needed for the
optimization of the ultrasonic horns for insertion process. Anand and Elangovan 1have tried to
optimize the ultrasonic inserting parameters to achieve maximum pull out
strength of ultrasonic insertion process. Cardoni et al 2investigated the design requirements of block
horns which operate as intermediate components in ultrasonic systems. Patrick et al 3investigated the effect of manual and ultrasonic
insertion of standardized class I inlays using three composite resin materials
of different viscosity. Roopa Rani et al 4
have developed different ultrasonic horns from materials a made a study on
thermo-elastic heating of the horns used in ultrasonic plastic welding. Safe
stress levels were predicted by modal and harmonic analysis followed by stress analysis
using ANSYS software. Roopa Rani
and Rudramoorthy 5 have tried computational modeling and experimental
studies of the dynamic performance of ultrasonic horns. Suresh et al 6 have done the modeling and of temperature
distribution in ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics for various joint designs.
Lin 7derived an equation for
the resonance frequency for the design of the longitudinal-torsional composite
ultrasonic exponential horns. Ganeshamoorthi
et al 8 have studied about the optimizing technique used in ultrasonic
metal welding of copper sheet and copper wire. 
Ioan-Calin et
al 9 have developed the design and characterization of an axisymmetric
ultrasonic horn held by its circumference, with specified working frequency,
amplification factor and nodal point position. Siddiq and Ghassemieh 10 have
attempted to simulate the ultrasonic welding of metals by taking into account
of effects of surface and volume. Elangovan et al 11 have developed a model
for the temperature distribution during welding and stress distribution in the
horn and welded joints. Arthur et al 12
have developed a model for the mechanics (oscillating deformation), heat
transfer including viscoelastic heat generation and friction dissipation, and
degree of adhesion (intimate contact and healing) for the initial transient
heating phase. Numerical resolution was performed using a multi-physical finite
element code. Kaifeng et al 13 have made a study on Effect of interfacial
preheating on welded joints during ultrasonic composite welding. Mantra et al 14 have made a
study on the control parameters like vibration amplitude, weld pressure and
weld time are considered for the welding of dissimilar metals like aluminum
(AA1100) and brass (UNS C27000) sheet of 0.3 mm thickness. Chen and Zhang 15
have developed a three-dimensional finite element model to study the
temperature distribution and heat generation in ultrasonic welding process.
Chunbo and Li 16 have been developed a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element
model to simulate the coupled thermal-mechanical fields in ultrasonic welding
of aluminum foils. Roopa et al 17 have made study on the far field welding of
semi crystalline polymer/high-density polyethylene. Volkov 18 has developed a
hypothesis for the mechanism of heat generation in the ultrasonic welding of
plastics. Volkov 19 has made an investigation on the special features of
joining metallic components with thermoplastics. Kamaleash and Elangovan 20
have studied about the temperature distribution between the metal and the
plastic component during ultrasonic insertion process. Tsujino et al 21 have made a study on the joint
structure of a transducer horn-holder assembly for a wire bonder. Cretu 22
has made an investigation on the behavior of the finite cylindrical rods with
harmonic variation of the cross section. Himanshu and Harshit 23have
considered weld strength as an effective attribute to identify the quality of
ultrasonically welded joints. Volkov and Bigus 24 have developed a specialized welding
machine for the ultrasonic contour welding of ABS plastics.Jingzhou et al 25 investigated the thermal phenomena and to realize production level in-situ
temperature measurement by using micro thin-film thermocouples and thin-film
thermopile arrays at the very vicinity of the ultrasonic welding spot during
joining of three-layered battery tabs and Cu bus bars (i.e., battery
interconnect) as in General Motors Chevy Volt. Micro sensors were first
fabricated on the bus bars. Kaifeng et al
26 have tested the ultrasonic welding of an injection molded short carbon
fiber reinforced composite is to investigate three important weld attributes,
bonding efficiency, weld area, and horn indentation. From the above research
papers, various design and performance of different types of horns, material
vibrational characteristics, welding of thermoplastics, techniques to evaluate
the parameters were studied and understood. Modal, harmonic analyses for the
different horn profiles were done by using ANSYS software are studied. The
finite element method for calculating the interface temperature and the
derivations of thermo-mechanical problem has been studied. In this project, for
the optimized dimensions the horn will be fabricated and the thermal analysis
will be carried out to find the interface temperature thus, the literatures
from the finite element methods are helpful in doing the simulations as well as
compare it with the experimental results.  

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