Seven Modern Perspectives in PsychologyBrittney GallardoNavarro College Author NoteBrittney Gallardo, Department of Psychology, Navarro College Seven Modern Perspectives in PsychologyThis paper explores the seven modern perspectives inpsychology. These perspectives help to understand how a human behaves, think,and feel.
Each perspective emphasizes different aspects of the human mind. Theperspectives divide the human mind in how they are and what they do, this helpsto understand the mental and physical process. For many decades, psychologistshave studied and have been able to develop each perspective differently. Eitherto help improve what a previous psychologist has already applied to the subjector even perform an experiment to prove the theory. “Since the early 1960s, thefield of psychology has flourished and continued to grow at a rapid pace, andso has the depth and breadth of subjects studied by psychologists.” (Cherry, Perspectives in Modern Psychology, 2017) Still today many psychologists are knowingmore about each perspective and how today’s people many think, react, and evenfeel differently than from people from centuries before.
PsychodynamicThe first modern perspective is psychodynamic, Sigmund Freudwas the first to develop the theory of the original psychodynamic but it doeshave other theories that were based off on his ideas e.g. Jung (1964), Alder(1927), and Erikson (1950). “Freud developed his idea when he began with hispatients during therapy talking about how they are dealing with depression andanxiety.” (Sigmund, 1915) Freud concluded thatthe personality is composed of three elements: id, ego, and superego. The id iscomposed of the inherited components of the personality that is presented atbirth. The ego develops mediate between the id and the real world, it is thedecision making component of personality. Superego incorporates values and moralsof society learned from other or one’s parents.
BehavioralBehavioral is the perspectivethat focuses on learned behavior, it isn’t like other perspectives thatemphasize the internal states but instead focus more on observable behaviors. Itis the understanding the behavior of humans and other animals. John B Watson beganthe movement in 1913 when he wrote an article entitled ‘Psychology as thebehaviorist views it’. In his article, he described the experimental branch ofnatural science and the dividing line between man and brute.
Later, a new formwas behaviorism was discovered by B.F Skinner, he founded radical behaviorism. Skinner,just as Watson, recognized the role of the internal mental events occurring.
Watson’smethodological behaviorism asserts the mind is blank at birth while radical behaviorismaccepts the view that organisms are born with innate behaviors, recognizing therole of genes and biological components in behavior. Through all the discovery,many studies have been performed to show that these factors are in fact truesuch as ‘Little Albert’, ‘Bobo Doll Study’, and ‘Pavlov’s Dogs”. HumanisticBy the late 1950’s a “Third Force” was beginningto form. They discussed several themes – such as self, self-actualization,health, creativity, intrinsic nature, being, becoming, individuality, andmeaning – which they believed likely to become central concerns of such anapproach to psychology. Often called the “the third force”, humanistic is thereaction to both psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism.
This method focuses ona person’s ability to direct their own life. “Central to the humanistictheories of Rogers (1959) and Maslow (1943) are the subjective, consciousexperiences of the individual. Humanistic psychologists argue that objective reality is less importantthan a person’s subjective perception and understanding of the world.” (Mcleod, 2007-2015) CognitiveDuring the 1960s, the new perspectivecognitive was developed into psychology.
This area focuses on mental processessuch as memory, problem-solving, thinking, language, and decision-making. “There is some dispute as to who createdthe cognitive approach, but some sources attribute the term to the 1950s and1960s, with Ulric Neisser’s book Cognitive Psychology, which madeallusions of the human mind working in a similar fashion to computers.”(Cognitive Approach, 2017) Through this approach the perspective grewthanks to later psychologist Jean Piaget and Albert Bandura within the decades.
Cognitive psychologists study how information is acquired, processed, stored,and utilized in the human mind. Sociocultural”Sociocultural combines two areas of study: social psychology,which is the study of groups, social roles, and rules of social actions andrelationships, and cultural psychology, which is the study of cultural norms,values, and expectations.” (Ciccarelli & White, 2017, p. 13) This perspective shows the relationshipbetween social behavior and culture to a person.
The first notable book waspublished by McDougall in 1908 (An Introduction to Social Psychology), itincluded chapters on emotion and sentiment, morality, character, and religion.He believed that social behavior was innate/instinctive. Other had otherthoughts such as Allport, he acknowledged that social behavior results frominteractions between people. Neither one is wrong, sociocultural is how we actan do in groups, with people, and ideas of today’s culture.
BiopsychologicalThis method is known for human and animal behavior tobiological events occurring to in the body. “How genetics influence differentbehaviors or how damage to specific areas of the brain influence behavior andpersonality. Things like the nervous system, genetics, the brain, the immunesystem and the endocrine systems.” (Cherry, Perspectives in Modern Psychology, 2017).
Through thisprocess and today’s evolved technology, many doctors and psychologists can telleffects on internal factors such as effects of brain damage, drugs, and diseasein any way. This perspective plays a big role in all internal events occurringin the human body. EvolutionaryThe evolutionary perspective focuses on biological bases foruniversal mental characteristics that all many and all humans share together.Charles Darwin (1859) helped picture this when he theorized natural selection; itis designed the same as how the mind has a set information-processing machines.Evolutionary consists of different traits which in include perception, memory, andlanguage. Through many shared characteristics of humans passed down fromgenerations before and soon enough it became part of the gene, such as whyhumans don’t like the bitter taste. It evolved over time from learning and experiencefrom their ancestors.
Many factors are studied in this area such asrelationships, many people share common characteristics and that’s whypsychologists look at in this area. References Cherry, K. (2017, October 7). Perspectives in Modern Psychology.
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