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Scrum –  This method is a process framework for the agile methodology.  It is used to organise and provide structure to projects / people to produce or concentrate solely on what is important. 

PMBOK – PMBOK has 5 process groups and “47 processes” according to Richardson, (2014, p25), which are defined as “a set of interrelated actions and activities performed to create a pre-specified product, service or result” (PMBOK, p.47). According to Karaman & Murat, (2015 , p578) “PMBOK is preferable or needs to be utilised for IT projects with high client commitment, large and complex project teams and high level of outsourcing”.

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Six Sigma –  The goal of this methodology is to “reduce the project errors” and improve the quality of products” as stated by Goodpasture, (2003)

Rapid Application Development (RAD ) – This method uses shorter project phases.  Chavart, (2003, p118) suggests that , PM use the building “block approach that show immediate results” that can then be gradually added to / built onto project. 
Iterative – According to Wysocki, (2014) the iterative model consists of ” number of process groups that are completed sequentially within an iteration with a feedback loop after each iteration is completed”. It  is used to eliminate project risks early before the project is affected.

Compare and contrast two different project management methodologies 25
On comparing two methodologies, waterfall and agile, Hunt (2018, p10) suggests that, a similarity between the two, is that the overall goal of both, is to “produce a project that meets spec and customer requirements”. Though both possess the same goal, their phases “manifest the exact opposite” according to, Zahang & Cabage (2013). Waterfall has an “undisciplined approach” insists Gomma (2011, p30) and is mainly used for software and engineering  projects, where as, Wang, et al (2008, p408), refers to agile as owning a more consistently “disciplined  application of proven practices and processes”, used mainly for information technology projects .
 Agile methods consist of a lot of flexibility, with room for error , an evaluation of each stage of process is carried out and signed off with the client, enabling advantage of making adjustments before moving on to the next stage. Agile projects are best suited to “small and medium projects that develop application software” suggests , Fairley ,(2011). Waterfall on the other hand ,there is no stopping once the process has begun, the project flows down each stage with hopes of a good outcome, clients are generally absent.  See model Agile VS waterfall below.

Figure 4: Agile Vs Waterfall Model

waterfall Method – Due to its simplicity  the waterfall provides the government with exploit oversight and control suggests Anderson & Dorfman, (1991). Organisations use this method for “HR, payroll and accounting” purposes according to Hawryszkiewycz, (2012, p33) this method is also known as the traditional approach or the document driven model. (Figure 2) below shows the process of waterfall. 

Figure 2: Waterfall Model

Agile Method –  The term agile stands for it’s  “speed of delivery and flexibility” according to Piper (2010, p160). Scrum as mentioned previously is a process framework  that implements agile, many confuse the two of being one method due to having the same approach. Agile methodology is based on iterative and incremental model of software development due to it’s adaptable nature, agile is able to incorporate changes and release a product, in lesser time than waterfall.  Agile is also better equipped to deal with more complicated projects than waterfall suggests , McBride, (2016, p27). Customer feedback is incorporated into the projects design before the next stage is started. The most important principle for agile is its customer satisfaction by giving rapid and continuous delivery. See (figure 3) below, for Agile model process:


Figure 3: Agile Model 

Disadvantages of Agile:

Planning can be less concrete and organised / less order  
Team must be knowledgeable  
Time commitment may lack from developers  
Documentation can be neglected  
Final product may not be as expected 

Disadvantages or Waterfall:

Working software produced late on in cycle 
High risk & uncertainty 
Not beneficial for complex and object oriented projects
Not suitable for high spec projects
Cant adapt to change
No going back once process has begun

Advantages of Agile:

Customer fully engaged and involved 
Speed of processes 
Room for error/ changes 

Advantages of Waterfall:

More organised approach in advance 
Changes are discouraged / more cost effective 
Specific time scale followed / more certainty 

Waterfall and agile are very different and it will not always be possible to choose between them both, although depending on the project’s needs, using a combination of both methods can result in the most appropriate solution for the organisation.

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