Role of carotenoids inlung diseasesCarotenoidsare natural pigments ranging from yellow to red that are present in fruits andvegetables. In carotenoids A-Carotene, b-carotene, b-cryptoxanthin, lutein,zeaxanthin, and lycopene are most predominant and consisting of 90% ofcirculating carotenoids.
Carotenoids play an important role in carcinogenesisand used as medications for cancer treatment. Carotenoids have anti-cancerproperties by following different mechanisms including anti-oxidation, immunityincreasing, suppression of tumorigenesis and malignant transformation,suppression of cell proliferation, and metabolism to retinoids whichsuccessively contribute to cellular differentiation.Dietary antioxidantshave tendency to enhance host antioxidant defenses by suppression of oxidativestress. Lycopene is a carotenoid with powerful antioxidant that is used inasthma. In asthmatic patient’s lycopene or lycopene-rich supplement decreasebronchoconstriction and neutrophil influx and also elastase activity in airway.Dietary antioxidants have potential effects when used with other nutrients as apart of whole food other than separately use them.Tuberculosisand lung cancer are serious health problems worldwide that cause significantmorbidity and mortality.
Lung cancer is most common malignancy that causesdeaths around the world. It is estimated that 1.35 million people diagnosedfrom lung cancer as well as 1.18 million people die every year.
Due to cigarettesmoking 90 to 95% people acquire lung cancer in North America and Europe.According to the world health organization, in 2009 9.4 million incident casesof tuberculosis and 1.7 million people died. Tuberculosis that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is infectsone third of world’s population.In treatmentpharmacological dose of beta-carotene give no protection against lung cancer ascompared to placebo.
In fact supplemental beta-carotene enhanced lung cancerrisk in heavy smokers. But beta-carotene at dietary level has been inverseeffect with lung cancer treatment. High consumption of fruits and vegetableswith beta-carotene has beneficial affects against lung cancer.Impact of carotenoidson tuberculosis riskOver the past150 years, although incidence and mortality of tuberculosis have fallensteadily in North America and Europe, but it remains top global cause of deathsfrom infections. The World Health Organization reported that 10.
4 million casesreported in 2015 by which 1.8 million dies due to tuberculosis in low andmiddle income countries. The death rate of tuberculosis decreases before theavailability of either BCG or effective chemotherapy in high income countries.The country level data also showed that with the passage of time the incidenceof tuberculosis strongly decline with human development. Multiple linesof evidence propose that the link between tuberculosis and socioeconomic statusarbitrated by nutritional status. Studies in humans give information that undernutrition enhance the chances of tuberculosis and also documented thatmicronutrient deficiencies in persons have tuberculosis disease. Notably,studies of vitamin A and tuberculosis that have been done in populations havelow risk of tuberculosis and nutritional deficits, and their results wereinconclusive. Despite lowdata availability on tuberculosis risk, various previous knowledge supports therole of vitamin A in tuberculosis infections.
First time in 1920 Green,Mellanby, and colleagues proposed that vitamin A is an “anti-infective”agent. Vitamin A supplementationdecrease death rate in children with measeles by 58% and deficiency of vitaminA in children contributes to mortality from diarrheal diseases and measles,about 1.7% of all deaths in children <5 year old in low income countries. Asthma, lung inflammationand carotenoidsAllergicasthma is a severe and infectious disease that relatively increasing worldwide.In developed countries, the death rate is decline but still it is a seriousdisease in developing countries.
Allergic asthma is a serious disease of airwaypassage that is characterized by inflammation in airway, hyper reactivity,reversible airway blockage and hyper secretion of allergic agents. Manyeffector cells like mast cells, Th2 lymphocytes and eosinophils andinflammatory mediators like adhesion molecules cytokines and chemokine’s cancontribute to development, maintenance as well as exasperation of asthma. Forthe treatment of allergic asthma glucocorticoids are still most effectedsubstances that rarefying airway inflammation and remodeling airway passage. Butlong term use of glucocorticoids produce side effects like slow growth rate inchildren, lowering the bone mineral density in young’s, high blood sugar leveland high blood pressure in eye. For thisshould find effective anti-allergic asthma agent with no or lower side effectswith less cytotoxicity.
In European folk for the treatment of allergic asthma anherb Crocus sativus is commonly used that proven to be effective againstallergic asthma. The flowers of Crocus sativus contain a primary compoundcrocin, a diterpenoid glucoside that possess properties such as anti-allergic,anti-inflammatory, ant-oxidation, anti-hyperplasia that also decreased bloodglucose and lipid level with smooth muscle relaxant and regulation of immunesystem. Crocin is a carotenoid that would be an effective agent for thetreatment of allergic asthma.Evidence forcarotenoids and lung cancersLung canceralso known as lung carcinoma is a malignant lung tumor that is characterized byunlimited cell growth and proliferation. Lung cancer is the biggest cause ofmortality for cancer related deaths. For the patients with high risk of lungcancer a single agent is found to be very affective that is retinoids thatprovide primary chemoprevention in those patients that have existingpremalignant changes in bronchial epithelium or sputum, and secondarychemoprevention in those patients that have history of lung cancer. The agentreinoids can found to be effective against lung cancer treatment. Lung cancer remains the biggestcause of cancer related deaths in United States.
About 30% of all cancerrelated deaths are caused due to lung cancer. Despite too much investigationsabout cancer treatment and many therapeutic modalities, the survival rate ofpatient with lung cancer in last five years remain 15% and has witnessed lessprogress in past 30 years. Thefast-growing nature of lung cancer and its tendency for hematogenous spread areconsidered as major causing factors to its poor victims. For aimed to reduce lungcancer incidence should stop smoking habits, reducesd occupational insults suchas asbestos with many forms of nutritional supplementations.
For regard tocancer treatment carotenoids have been examined as broad spectrumanti-neoplastic activity basically against lung cancer. Carotenoids arepigments naturally found in fruits and vegetables with yellow orange and redcolor with fat soluble properties. Carotenoidsare naturally present in all photosynthetic organism and they serve as aphotosynthetic accessory pigments and also maintain photo-protective effect bytheir anti-oxidant properties. There are more than 600 carotenoids identifiedthat are naturally present from this six are significant for human body thatare alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, andcryptoxanthin. In addition, alpha- and beta-carotene have tendency to changeinto retinol (Vitamin A) in intestinal mucosa. These compounds are referred aspro-vitamin A carotenoids. Vitamin A in human body plays many importantfunctions and necessary for vision epithelial regulation, immunomodulation aswell as embryonic development.
The exact function of pro-vitamin A carotenoidsis still unclear as they may give protective effect against aging, stroke,molecular degeneration, ischemic heart disease, and cancer.Carotenoidsand its role in lung cancer prevention On the basis risk of lung cancer inassociation with consumption of fruits and vegetables and basic sciencefindings the hypothesis can be created that is many specific micronutrientswould be give protection and used as effective agents that reduce the chancesof lung cancer. For this several trials have been done to prove this hypothesisfor the prevention of lung cancer. The surprising result was obtained by thesetrials that challenged many ideas about micronutrients consumptions and risk oflung cancer. In cancerprevention study, Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene were used to control primaryprevention trials to check weather supplementation of Alpha-Tocopherol orBeta-Carotene or both could reduce the risk of lung cancer and other cancersand used as cancer preventive agents.For these trials on patients they found that there is no decrease theincidence of lung cancer with use of alpha-tocopherol. They found that the menwho receive beta-carotene have higher chances of lung cancer than those who didnot take beta-carotene.
The death rate also increases in those that takebeta-caroteneand they did not found any correlation between alpha-tocopheroland beta-carotene on chances of cancer. In later analysis of Alpha-TocopherolBeta-