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Role of IT in Medical Science Submitted ByKinza Shakeel , Erum Shabir ,Saima Sajjad. December 11, 2017        Table of ContentsAbstract                                                          4Introduction                                                                                5Discussion                                                                       7Health technology                                                   7     Historical View ofIT(Information Technology)in Medical Science                                                                                 7Role of IT inStudies of Medical Science                                 8      Roleof Leadership in Medical Education withregards to IT                                                                                                   10 HealthInformation Technology (HIT)                    12    Electronicprescribing                                                                                        13Telehealth                                                                                             13Electronic medical recordsystems (EHRs, and PHRs)       13Computerizedprovider order entry                                             14RemoteDiagnosis and Treatment of Diseases       15Empoweringactionable feedback                                              15Improving thequality of care                                                        15Increasing remotepatient healthcare access                            15Conclusion                                                    17Recommendations                                       17Glossary                                                         18Citations                                                         19  List ofIllustrationFigure 1   Effectivenessof Medical Education                            11Figure 2   Surveyon IT facility in Medical Science            11Figure 3   KeepingHealth Record                                                   14Figure 4   Advantagesof RMP                                                         16         Abstract The field of medicalscience has an important position in the world. As the human population isincreasing so is the criticality of diseases. The medical science is alwaysstruggling to find effective treatments to widespread diseases.

IT is one of anexcellent partner of medical science to help find solutions to its problems. Thefield of IT (Information Technology) is viewing a massive success currently andhas a brightening future. The main reason of its success is its usability anddire need in every other field of work.

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Such is its case in the field ofmedical science. The use of Medical Instruments for the treatment and diagnosisof diseases, methods of treating as many patients as possible, and the rigorousstudy of IT in medical schools is a proof that medical science has a crucialneed of these new emerging technologies in order to fulfill and carry out itsfunctions successfully.         IntroductionMany developedcountries have announced initiatives to modernize their health care systemswith investments in Health Information Technology (IT). The goal of theseinitiatives is to use technology:Ø toimprove the health care system by reducing costsØ increasingpatient safety and improving quality of care.  Improving healthcare is a common goal for these countries, but there are wide disparities inthe success with which nations have pursued this goal 1 (D.Castro, 2009)  In particular,countries such as the United States have lagged behind some European nations inthe adoption of health IT, such as electronic health records.

Interoperableelectronic health records are a prerequisite for a modern health care systemand the key to delivering a number of benefits to health care patients andpayers.  For example, thecomputerized decision support systems used in hospitals provide patients themost benefit when they use a complete and accurate set of patient data. Thesesystems can help ensure a return to the core principle of evidence-basedmedicine—that patients and doctors have the best evidence available when makinga decision about treatment.  While muchattention has been paid to the degree to which nations have made progress withinvestment in health IT, less attention has been paid to the level ofinvestment in health IT research. Yet evidence-based medicine relies on highquality medical research. Moreover, as we enter an increasingly digital world,the amount of health data that will be available to medical researchers will beincreasing substantially. While past medicalresearchers had only a few limited data points recorded on paper on which tobase their hypotheses, in the future researchers will have massive onlinedatabases containing terabytes of data for their analysis. Some of the majorbenefits from modernizing our health care system are expected to come from theimprovements in medical research that it will enable.

For example, medicalresearchers will be able to use rapid-learning health networks to determine theeffectiveness of a particular treatment for a certain population or to discoverharmful side-effects of a drug.  While some of thisresearch will occur in the private sector, for example through privatepharmaceutical research, public investment in this area will also be important.Already a variety of projects offer a glimpse into the possibilities that ITwill allow for future medical research.

But achieving this vision will requiresubstantial leadership and effort on the part of nations to overcome thetechnical and social hurdles ahead.        Discussion`               Healthtechnology is defined by the WHO (World Health Organization) asthe “application of organized knowledge and skills in the form of devices,medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problemand improve quality of lives”. 2Technology,Health. (2015, March 20). Retrieved Fall, from http://www.who.int/en/.        Historical View of IT (Information Technology) inMedical ScienceInformationtechnology is enhancing medical education in many different ways.

Before thestart of the Internet and the World Wide Web, computers used to store andretrieve medical information in/from databases. In 1984,”the AmericanAssociation of Medical Colleges issued recommendations that informationtechnology should be incorporated into medical schools so that graduates couldretrieve information from published databases and have basic familiarity withcomputer technology. 3 HollanderS. Assessing and enhancing medical students’ computer skills: A two-yearexperience.

Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 1999; 87: 67-73. Informationtechnology provide medical students easier and more effective access to a widervariety and greater quantity of information. Information technology plays animportant role in primary and secondary education, it was believed that medicalstudent’s knowledge andexpectation of computer use would grow consequently, and increasing demand of computerskills in medical curriculum would have a great potential to influence howmedicine would be taught and learned.

 Medical students areusing information technology more in education, and this increased use can beseen by the increasing rate of publications related to medical field ineducational conferences 4 (Aschenbrener,2008). Information technology has enhanced the mentoring and learning inmedical education, and will continue to emerge and become further integratedinto all aspects of the medical industry. Nowadays medical information iseasily accessible because of IT. Nowadays patient’s use IT to diagnose theirdiseases by themselves. The internet is the best resource in this aspect. Thesymptoms and causes of almost every disease can be read easily over theinternet.

Moreover, the patients can find out related solutions and treatmentsfor their diseases. If they cannot find out the treatment, event then theybecome able to deeply discuss their issue to their doctor. Because of internet,medical knowledge can be accessed by the people of every field. Throughinternet we can also take suggestions of foreign doctors.   From past 4 to 40 yearsInformation technology is used in Medical Science. World has become a globalvalley, having access to information, communication technologies, andinformation literacy, become extremely important for future physicians. Role of IT in Studies of Medical ScienceInformation technologyplays vital role in many fields.

It is also used in medical education in bothindustrialized and developing countries. In most of the countries, IT hassignificant impact in medical education and want to see the necessary changesbeing implemented to facilitate the students.IT is used for the examinationprocess in medical colleges. IT is a useful tool to solve the problem inmedical education. Most users were deprived of access to medical   sites which are available on the internet becausethey don’t possess IT Skills.

IT skills are very much important .Nowadays,computer is integrated in many medical organizations because it is used byevery third person. Computers are the necessity of every field.

 A researcher atUromia University of Medical Science in Iran found that,” In general, themedical students had no formal computer training and were unaware of themedical research and education resources available” 5 LotfnejadafsharH, Habibi S, Ghaderipakdel F. Evaluation of Urmia medical students’ knowledgeof computers and informatics. Health Information Management, 2007; 4: 33-41.  In a studyconducted in Yemen, it was concluded that “despite the medical studentscomputer and Internet knowledge being good, their use of technology for medicalresearch was poor” Bin Ghouth, S. (2012). 6 InternationalJournal of Health and Allied Sciences: Promoting research in health sciences.International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences, 1(1), 1.

The highestlevels of competence assessed were usually for e-mail, Internet use, and filemanagement, and very few students were confident in specific applications suchas office productivity software or doing a Medline search 7 Azarmina P, Coombes J,Melvin R, Miranda JJ, Samuel M, Young EJW. Assessing computer skills in aTanzanian medical school: An elective experience. BMC Public Health, 2004; 4:37.   Role of Leadership in Medical Education with regardsto ITEducational leadersplay an important role in implementing new technologies in order to improve thequality of medical education as well as organize training sessions forimplementation of technology.

  Thisleadership, with regards to integration of IT into medical education, differsin developing countries and industrialized countries. In order to implement ITinto medical field many developing countries take steps to improve theirmedical education for the future doctors. Developed countriesinvested large amount in IT for integration in medical education and made itpossible for medical students to update themselves with new researches in medicalfield.IT and computer skills among the medical students are higher in developedcountries then in undeveloped countries. IT impacts in large amount in bothmedical science and computer technology have gone under profound enhancement. International organizationssuch as the United Nations (UN) and the World Health Organization (WHO) haveacknowledged IT as a useful tool to address health care education in developingcountries. The United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals have articulatedthe significance of using IT to address education and health issues.

There are many collegeswhere IT facilities are not available.                                                                                           Information andcommunication technology(ICT) revolutionized our life , our ways to interactwith each other and day to day  life  and work. ICT application used in healthwhich includes tele medical , electronic medical records and health informationsystem ,  mobile health and eLearning’stool. ICT enhance the quality improves the health care and can act as solutionof problems.   Health information technology (HIT) Thetechnology which is used to enhance and secure the exchange of healthinformation between quality monitors, consumers and consumers etc is known asHealth information technology (HIT).

“The past decade has seen strong bipartisan support for health informationtechnology (HIT) as a mechanism for improving efficiency and quality, gainingmore accountability and value in purchasing, advancing the role and engagementof consumers in prevention and health decisions, accelerating discovery anddissemination of new treatments and therapies, and sharpening public healthmonitoring and surveillance.” 8 (JonathanB.perlin MD phD, 2016,JAMA Volume 316 Number 16)http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmsa0802005#t=articleThis technologyuses Computer Hardware and software to use, store, retrieve manipulate,transmit and maintenance of the Health care data and information.

The tools ofHealth Information technology which are mostly used in area of nursing,clinical care, pharmacy , public health, occupational therapy, medical researchand dentistry are Computers, Clinical guidelines, Formal medical terminologiesand Information and Communication Systems. When patientsshare information with doctors it helps in improving diagnosis, it alsopromoting self-care and another benefit is that patient also have informationabout his or her health.Following areexamples of Health information technology (HIT):Consumer health ItapplicationElectronicprescribing:  Atechnology framework that allows doctors and physicians instead of usinghandwritten or faxed notes, write and send prescriptions to a participatingpharmacy electronically.According toWikipedia(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_prescribing)”Electronicprescribing or e-prescribing (e-Rx) is the computer-basedelectronic generation, transmission and filling of a medical prescription,taking the place of paper and faxed prescriptions.

E-prescribing allowsa physician, pharmacist, nurse practitioner, or physician assistantto electronically transmit a new prescription or renewalauthorization to a community or mail-order pharmacy.”   Telehealth:Telehealth described by  Health Resourcesand Services Administration :”The use of electronic information andtelecommunications technologies to support long-distance clinical health care,patient and professional health-related education, public health and healthadministration.”https://www.hrsa.gov/rural-health/telehealth/index.html Electronicmedical record systems (EHRs, and PHRs):Following are thecentral component of the health IT infrastructure:1: A person’sofficial, digital health record is Electronic Health Record (EHR) and which isshared among multiple healthcare providers and agencies2: The PersonalHealth Record (PHR) is an electronic, universally available, lifelong resourceof health information needed by individuals to make health decisions.

Individuals own and manage the information in the PHR, which comes fromhealthcare providers and the individual. The PHR is maintained in a secure andprivate environment, with the individual determining rights of access. The PHRis separate from and does not replace the legal record of any provider.9 —?AHIMAe-HIM Personal Health Record Work Group (2005) https://www.ncbi.

nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15986557             Computerizedprovider order entry: a process in which medical practitioner instructionsfor the treatment of patients enter electronically under his or her care.Because of HIT it ispossible to manage patient care through the secure use and sharing ofinformation of patient. HIT help to reduce medical errors, diagnose problems ofheath sooner, and HIT at lower costs provide safer care.  Remote Diagnosis and Treatment of DiseasesThe percentage ofpeople getting infected by chronic diseases is increasing rapidly day by day.According to the report of 2012, about 117 million people were infected by oneor more chronic health diseases.

(2014, October 2). Multiple chronicconditions among US adults: a 2012 update. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/overview/index.htm.

This persistentlyincreasing rate needed to be decreased. So, the Medical Experts found anamazing solution. The RPM (Remote Patient Monitoring) technology helps doctorsdiagnose and treat diseases of patients living at long distances and unable toreach an effective medical center’s.The RPM is veryhelpful for the people living in remote areas. This technology works by:  Empoweringactionable feedback: RPM devices are easy to use in dailylives. According to the recent report of Abbott Laboratories Inc., diabeticpatients who check their glucose level frequently using glucometer, haveimproved average levels of blood glucose. Improvingthe quality of care: The patients’ health conditions are communicatedthrough biometric data for remote monitoring by healthcare providers.

In 2015report, a clear success of RPM was shown with a remarkably lowerhospitalization and morality rates. Increasingremote patient healthcare access: An e-ICU (Electronic-Intensive Care Unit) is helping healthcare providers offering duties in urbanareas to reach and monitor the health conditions of patients admitted in localhospitals of rural areas. They use RPM technology through two way cameras,video monitors and smart alarms. All of these devices are connected to highspeed data lines. This can help detect emergency situations and controlpatient’s state.

E-ICU’s are decreasing death rates and cut off the averagelength of an ICU stay. About 71% of healthcareproviders in US are using this approach to connect with patients in 2017.Butmost of them are using teleconferencing to help connect with the patients.

While, teleconferencing alone is not enough to get whole data and insight ofthe patient’s condition. The American Journal of Medicine, researchersdiscussed about how to fight with this less efficient method of chronic diseasetreatment by changing their delivery model. The solution came out in the formof RPS (Remote Presence Solution) provided with a digital stethoscope,otoscope, and high-resolution camera which gave access to doctors toclinical-grade patient data. This kind of treatment can be regarded as avirtual visit helped by teleconferences.       Conclusion The involvement of IT inthe field of medical science will improve the life sustainability in thepopulation. The lethal chronic diseases which are increasing the rate ofmortality must get treated in future by the use of new technologies and methodsof treatment involving Information Technology as discussed above.

 RecommendationsThe followingrecommendations can help boost the advancement of medical science through useof IT.             I.                       Regulating technologies for health careconsumers.       II.                       Developing guidance on the structure andusability of health information technologies.  III.

                       Developing guidance and standards for medicaldevice labeling.IV.                       Improving adverse event reporting systemsfor medical devices.                                                                                           GlossaryIT (InformationTechnology)Studyin support with computer based information means use of computer technology indifferent fields such as medical science. WHO (World HealthOrganization)TheWorld Health Organization (WHO) is the body of the United Nations (UN)responsible for directing and coordinating health.ICT(Information Communication Technology)          HIT (HealthInformation Technology)Itis the information technology which is applied in health and health care. Itsupport the information technology in health using computerize technique inmodern world.  EHRs (ElectronicHealth Record)Healthcare agencies provide us record it is the person’s official record which isshared to multiple health care providers.

 PHR (PersonsHealth Record)Itis the computerize record globally accessible it is long lasting resource ofhealth information needed by individual to make health decision. RPM (RemotePatient Monitoring)Remotepatient monitoring is a technology which enable to monitor the patients outsidethe clinic setting (eg: home). E-ICU (Electronic– Intensive Care Unit)An ElectronicIntensive Care Unit (E-ICU) is a form of telemedicine that uses state ofthe art technology to provide an additional layer of criticalcare service.Citations1 Castro, D. (2009). ExplainingInternational IT Application Leadership: Health IT.

 SSRN ElectronicJournal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1477486. 2 Technology,health. (2015, March 20). Retrieved from http://www.who.

int/en/.3 Hollander, S.(1999). Bulletin of the medical library association. In Assessing andenhancing medical students’ computer skills: a two-year experience (87th ed.

,pp. 67-73). 4 Aschenbrener, M.(2008). It in medical education. 5 Lotfnejadafshar, H., Habibi, S., , F.

(2007). Evaluation of urmia medical students’ knowledgeof computers and informatics. Health Information Management, 4,33-41.6 Bhojraj, S. (2012). InternationalJournal of Health and Allied Sciences: Promoting research in healthsciences. International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences, 1(1),1.

doi:10.4103/2278-344x.96404.7 Samuel, M.,Coombes, J. C.

, Miranda, J. J., Melvin, R.,Young, E. J., & Azarmina, P. (2004).

Assessing computerskills in Tanzanian medical students: an elective experience. BMCPublic Health, 4(1). doi:10.1186/1471-2458-4-37.

8 Jonathan B.perlin. (2009, July17). Electronic Health Records in Ambulatory Care ? A National Survey ofPhysicians — NEJM. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nejm.

org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmsa0802005#t=article .9 Burrington-Brown J , et al. (n.d.

). Defining the personal healthrecord. AHIMA releases definition, attributes of consumer health record. -PubMed – NCBI.

Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15986557.

 

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