Rise andfall of Marxism in RussiaResearch Question:HowMarxism spread in Russia and their influence on Russian communism?Thepolitical history about the class struggle between the proletariat (workingclass) and bourgeoisie (ruling class) was deeply explained by the Marx andFriedrich Engels and argued that why bourgeoisie (Ruling class) always dominatethe proletariat (ruling class), we have to escape the ruling class and thereshould be no difference between the individuals all the opportunities should bedivided equally between both classes. The book the “communist manifesto” basedon the policy of communism was one of the good server for the readers in thehistory of world which were published in 1848. The philosophies distributed byMarx plays highly influential role in the development of communism in Russiaand highly appreciated throughout the world.Thesis statement:Marxismis centered on the idea of class struggle the proletariat against thebourgeoisie and believed that the communist revolution could take place inRussia for both ruling and working class that can bring equality and no onejudge on the basis of wealth and education but the coup diminished Gorbachevpower and propelled Yeltsin and the democratic forces to the forefront of sovietand Russian politics and country broke up into fifteen independent states.Literature Review:TheRussian revolution explained by” Karl D. Qualls” faculty member of historydepartment Dickinson College in his article he explains the impact andlimitations of western influence and how the idea againgenerated by the historians about first communist state after the collapse ofsoviet union in the longer sweep of Russian history. Two interpretations arefound in this article first is about the Bolshevik revolution which was basedon the philosophy of Marxism and transformation of state and society and therevolution period of Russia from 1905 to 1917.
“AndreiShleifer and Daniel Triesman” both are the Russian- American economists writeabout the transformation and changing’s in Russia which will occur from thecommunist dictatorship into a multiparty democracy. Basically the writingfocusing on the changing’s and problems after the fall of communism in Russiaalso put light on the major changing’s occur from rise to fall of communism inRussia in economic perspective and draw the reason about how the economicposition of Russia fall or rise with the rise and fall of communism in Russia.Thearticle nationalism and collapse of soviet communism is written by the Americanauthor “Mark R. Beissinger” in which he talked about the period of 1980,s andearly 1990,s what is the role of nationalism after the collapse of communismand how nationalism should be considered the cause of the fall of communism,nationalism within and beyond the collapse what are the reasons behind allthese scenario and share the weakness of the defence forces of Russia of thesoviet state.Bookthe origin of Russian communism written by Nicolas Berdyaev first published in1937 and then second edition in 1948 in which he talked about classical Marxismand Russian Marxism that how Marxism spread in Russia and first generation ofRussian Marxism waged in the first place and also talked about the industrialdevelopment in Russia also explained about the condition of pre-revolutionaryRussia and Russian communism that how Russian revolution takes place andLenin’s thought he further talked about the relationship between theChristianity and communism and explained that philosophy of anti-Christian andanti-humanist and explained how capital system is anti-Christian.Firstcommunist state were born after the collapse of Soviet Union. In the late 19thcentury Russia start focusing on representative’s institutions and to develop industrialstate to strengthen economy, more open government, rule of law and markets willbe free from capitalism.
There are two interpretations first the Bolshevikrevolution were followed by the western philosophy of Marxism which were basedon the development of economic and political culture. According to the Marxdevelopment had to be organic and second the problems of inorganic developmentsthrough a centralized leadership with a difficult relationship to the west andto Russian’s own tradition. BODYMarxism PrerevolutionaryRussiaThereare necessary steps taken by Marx forRussian society in which he taught thatindustrialization and capitalization are very important steps must be taken bythe working class before arise and institute communism in Russia.Tsarthe Russian ruler was ruling Russian empire before the communist revolution atthat time Russian empire was a monarchy. During the time period of Marxindustrialization is at its early position and at that time Russia was largelyknown as agriculture country and this is the main reason behind Russiangovernment didn’t focused on the threats given by the Marx. Marx ideas werebanned many other countries but allowed to be distributed in Russia.
RussianrevolutionariesVladimirLeninand LeonTrotsky are well renowned Russianrevolutionaries who got influenced bythe writings of Marx and promote the communist ideas of Marxism throughpublication.Duringthe early growth of communism in Russia the spark Lenin was one of the moststrong personalities who promote communism in Russia after the removalof thetsar regime,LeninBolshevik is one who spread communism in Russia. Russia comeinto power and quickly absorb or removal of their social groups. He startedworking on the goals after Marx but on smaller level. But there is believe ofMarx that communist revolution must be successful on the international level.thereis a hard believe of Lenin on the idea of Marx that there must be the period ofdictatorship of the proletariat or working class in the society before reachedto true communism.
Duringthe era there is a brief fight for power between two chieflieutenants,LeonTrotsky and joseph Stalin orLenin after the death of Lenin in 1924 Thereis a believe of Trotsky there should be the constant revolution in the worldfor the survival of communism andStalin believed there is only way thatcommunism could succeed in a single state and it could be working with other forms of governmentuntil the working class of that countryplanned their own revolution. Inthe era of 1980,s and early 1990 Gorbachev and other Russian rulersacknowledged that the communist party is failed to live and the rule of workingclass was ended. bookthe origin of Russiancommunism by Nicolas Berdyaev first published in 1937 andthe second edition in 1948 in which he talked about the different aspects forexample economic talkingabout the Lenin believe about Marxism he believed that the proletariatrevolution could take place very soon, there believe is that we are approachingtowards proletariat revolution he wants to see this revolution throughout theworld, but he was a Russian and he only do revolution in Russia. REFRENCESMarxistdreams and soviet realities by “Ralph Raico” Cato Institute Abrief history of Russia by “Michael kort” (university of California SanFrancisco)Nationalismand collapse of soviet communism by “MARK R. BEISSINGER”KarlMarx yesterday and today by” Loy Menand” (THE NEW YORKER)