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Ripple also offers some heristics and procedure to provide utility to RPCA.First of all, there is a mandatory two seconds window for all nodes to broadcast their candidate set in each roundof consensus process. This window not only ensures that every node with reasonable latency will have the ability toparticipate in the consensus process, but also ends each round in a finite time. Secondly, each server is able to modifytheir own unique node list after all valid transactions are recorded into blockchain. Each server can note a node asmalicious and remove it by some easily detected behaviors, such as a node always votes ‘no’ in consensus process or anode broadcast transactions with not enough ‘yes’ votes. The unique node list can be initialized by a pre-defined setthat provided by Ripple Labs. This set is used for minimizing the byzantine failure and providing intersection withother unique node list. The default set guarantees that even a naive user can participate in the consensus process andbehaves correctly.Because Ripple’s consensus mechanism allows temporary forks to appear, a network split detection algorithm shouldbe emplyed. When a last-closed ledger is certified as correct by the consensus algorithm, it will not block otherlast-closed ledger to be certified as correct in the whole network. To keep aware of this situation, every nodes shouldalways monitor the size of active members in their unique node list. If the size drops below a threshold, then a forkcould be happened.The reason for a four or five rounds vote for a single transaction is this guarantees every honest node have the abilityto see the transaction and participate in voting. Sometimes a node could be a hot-spot and has a very high latency,so it may be unable to confirm a single transaction in time. Besides, the process speed of each node is different, aserver should make sure that every node in its unique node list has accept and process the transaction properly.

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