Reviewof LiteratureThe relationship between religiousinvolvement and forgiveness was assessed in three samples of Western Europeansliving in a social environment dominated by the Catholic tradition. The samplescomprised nonbelievers/nonattendees, believers/nonattendees, believers/regularattendees, and religious people.
Age and religious involvement were shown toaffect the willingness to forgive in an interactive way: The effect ofreligious involvement was stronger for the elderly group. We also found thatwhat made the difference in the willingness to forgive was mainly the socialcommitment to religion (attendance in church and the taking of vows), not merepersonal beliefs. In addition, age and religious involvement were found toaffect blockage towards forgiveness in an additive way.
Barros, Usaï, Neto, and Shafighi. (2003) The descriptive, correlational studyinvestigated how psychological resilience might be associated with forgivenessin older adults. The population selected was a planned community in the south-easternUnited States; the majority of the 4,500 residents were over 50 years old.
Theanalyses indicated a low, but statistically significant correlation betweenresilience and forgiveness as forgiveness increased, resilience tended toincrease somewhat. The regression resulted in a model consisting of theforgiveness score, self-rated resilience, age, gender, and health status as thevariables explaining about 28.1% of the variance in resilience. Broyles and Cox (2005)The study aimed toinvestigate the relation between forgivingness and depressive symptoms inelderly individuals and second, to explore whether the developmental task ofintegrity/despair is a possible underlying process in this relation. Community-dwellingelderly individuals and residential elderly individuals in Belgium filled outquestionnaires on forgivingness, depressive symptoms, and the developmentaltask of integrity/despair. Forgivingness and depression were negativelyassociated in both residential elderly individuals and community-dwellingelderly individuals.
The developmental task of finding integrity and avoidingdespair showed to be a significant mediator in relationship. Dezutter Toussaint and Leijssen(2016)Theevolution of the propensity to forgive an offense was studied in a sample of236 people from various age groups. The effect of a number of circumstancesconnected with the offense was considered: intent to harm, severity ofconsequences, cancellation of consequences, social proximity to the offender,apologies from the offender, and the attitude of others. The method was anapplication of information integration theory. A global increase in thepropensity to forgive from adolescence to old age was observed. The structureof the Forgiveness schema was shown to be an additive one, regardless of theage of the participants. Girard and Mullet,(1997)The study used national probability data tosystematically examine age differences in the association between forgiveness,religiousness/ spirituality, and respondent reports of mental and physicalhealth. Results showed age differences in the levels of forgiveness of othersand feeling forgiven by God.
In both cases, middle and old age adults showedhigher levels of these forms of forgiveness than young adults. Furthermore, therelationship between forgiveness of others and respondent reports of mental andphysical health varies by age. Forgiveness of others was more strongly relatedto self-reported mental and physical health for middle and old age adults thanfor young adults. Toussaint, Williams Musick,(2001)The study was carried out as aqualitative work based on a descriptive phenomenological approach.
Theparticipants were selected purposefully, so that 22 elderly with chronic diseasewere interviewed in 24 sessions. Improvement in resilience is associated with apatient-oriented approach. Providers of health services might make properinterventions based on unique needs of patients to improve their resilience andability to overcome health problems. This can be performed by family members,health team, and related organizations and bodies. Hassani, Avanji, Rakhshan,and Majd (2017)Forgiveness is an aspect that has been widelyexplored in religion art and recently it has taken a special relevance inhealth research.
The article was part of a research based on the lifeexperience of three homeless elderly individuals from Colombia. The first was amurderer (S1). The second was a priest (S2), and the third one, a farmer (S3).The data collection techniques were: open interviews, researcher’s journal, anda narrative matrix. The results evidenced that forgiveness was not part ofparental guidance. Its perception was built up through the interaction withpeople out of their family group. Moreover, bearing in mind the theoreticalclassification of forgiveness, it was found that among the units of sense ofthe three participants, there is a unilateral concept, aiming to take back the emotionalwellbeing which was lost for a difficult situation. Gonzalez P, Suarez M,Tapasco R, Astudillo E (2017)The aim of the study, which was a part of TheUmeå 85+ study, was to describe resilience, sense of coherence, purpose in lifeand self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health in asample of the oldest old.
The study sample consisted of 125 participants 85years of age or older, who ranked themselves on the Resilience Scale, Sense ofCoherence Scale, Purpose in Life Scale and Self-Transcendence Scale andanswered the SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire. The conclusions were that, thecorrelation between scores on the different scales suggests that the scalesmeasure some dimension of inner strength and that the oldest old have thisstrength at least in the same extent as younger adults. Another conclusion isthat the dimensions that constitute mental health differ between women and men. Nygren, Aléx, Jonsén,Gustafson, Norberg and Lundman(2005)