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The relationship between religious
involvement and forgiveness was assessed in three samples of Western Europeans
living in a social environment dominated by the Catholic tradition. The samples
comprised nonbelievers/nonattendees, believers/nonattendees, believers/regular
attendees, and religious people. Age and religious involvement were shown to
affect the willingness to forgive in an interactive way: The effect of
religious involvement was stronger for the elderly group. We also found that
what made the difference in the willingness to forgive was mainly the social
commitment to religion (attendance in church and the taking of vows), not mere
personal beliefs. In addition, age and religious involvement were found to
affect blockage towards forgiveness in an additive way. Barros, Usaï, Neto, and Shafighi. (2003)

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The descriptive, correlational study
investigated how psychological resilience might be associated with forgiveness
in older adults. The population selected was a planned community in the south-eastern
United States; the majority of the 4,500 residents were over 50 years old. The
analyses indicated a low, but statistically significant correlation between
resilience and forgiveness as forgiveness increased, resilience tended to
increase somewhat. The regression resulted in a model consisting of the
forgiveness score, self-rated resilience, age, gender, and health status as the
variables explaining about 28.1% of the variance in resilience. Broyles and Cox (2005)

The study aimed to
investigate the relation between forgivingness and depressive symptoms in
elderly individuals and second, to explore whether the developmental task of
integrity/despair is a possible underlying process in this relation. Community-dwelling
elderly individuals and residential elderly individuals in Belgium filled out
questionnaires on forgivingness, depressive symptoms, and the developmental
task of integrity/despair. Forgivingness and depression were negatively
associated in both residential elderly individuals and community-dwelling
elderly individuals. The developmental task of finding integrity and avoiding
despair showed to be a significant mediator in relationship. Dezutter Toussaint and Leijssen(2016)

evolution of the propensity to forgive an offense was studied in a sample of
236 people from various age groups. The effect of a number of circumstances
connected with the offense was considered: intent to harm, severity of
consequences, cancellation of consequences, social proximity to the offender,
apologies from the offender, and the attitude of others. The method was an
application of information integration theory. A global increase in the
propensity to forgive from adolescence to old age was observed. The structure
of the Forgiveness schema was shown to be an additive one, regardless of the
age of the participants. Girard and Mullet,(1997)

The study used national probability data to
systematically examine age differences in the association between forgiveness,
religiousness/ spirituality, and respondent reports of mental and physical
health. Results showed age differences in the levels of forgiveness of others
and feeling forgiven by God. In both cases, middle and old age adults showed
higher levels of these forms of forgiveness than young adults. Furthermore, the
relationship between forgiveness of others and respondent reports of mental and
physical health varies by age. Forgiveness of others was more strongly related
to self-reported mental and physical health for middle and old age adults than
for young adults. Toussaint, Williams Musick,(2001)

The study was carried out as a
qualitative work based on a descriptive phenomenological approach. The
participants were selected purposefully, so that 22 elderly with chronic disease
were interviewed in 24 sessions. Improvement in resilience is associated with a
patient-oriented approach. Providers of health services might make proper
interventions based on unique needs of patients to improve their resilience and
ability to overcome health problems. This can be performed by family members,
health team, and related organizations and bodies. Hassani,  Avanji, Rakhshan,and Majd (2017)

Forgiveness is an aspect that has been widely
explored in religion art and recently it has taken a special relevance in
health research. The article was part of a research based on the life
experience of three homeless elderly individuals from Colombia. The first was a
murderer (S1). The second was a priest (S2), and the third one, a farmer (S3).
The data collection techniques were: open interviews, researcher’s journal, and
a narrative matrix. The results evidenced that forgiveness was not part of
parental guidance. Its perception was built up through the interaction with
people out of their family group. Moreover, bearing in mind the theoretical
classification of forgiveness, it was found that among the units of sense of
the three participants, there is a unilateral concept, aiming to take back the emotional
wellbeing which was lost for a difficult situation. Gonzalez P, Suarez M,
Tapasco R, Astudillo E (2017)

The aim of the study, which was a part of The
Umeå 85+ study, was to describe resilience, sense of coherence, purpose in life
and self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health in a
sample of the oldest old. The study sample consisted of 125 participants 85
years of age or older, who ranked themselves on the Resilience Scale, Sense of
Coherence Scale, Purpose in Life Scale and Self-Transcendence Scale and
answered the SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire. The conclusions were that, the
correlation between scores on the different scales suggests that the scales
measure some dimension of inner strength and that the oldest old have this
strength at least in the same extent as younger adults. Another conclusion is
that the dimensions that constitute mental health differ between women and men. Nygren, Aléx,  Jonsén,
Gustafson, Norberg  and Lundman

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