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Responses to the threats to peace and security in the Sahel zone The above developments have highlighted the peculiarity of the conflicts that are agitating the Sahel region as well as the cross-cutting nature of the threats to peace and security that they involve. They also identified northern Mali as the place of crystallization of all the destabilizing dynamics.

For these reasons, the answers to these threats must, for the sake of efficiency, make it possible to act, first of all, on the central focus of these dynamics that have become the North of Mali. In this context, it seems appropriate to grapple with the problems that arise, isolating the issue of Tuareg demands of the implementation of jihadist movements in the region, which has grafted in recent years.The first question can and must be settled by means of political negotiation between the central government and the Tuareg representatives. The obstacle that stands in the immediate future is the double crisis of legitimacy and authority that has affected the Malian political power since the coup d’état of March 20, 2012.At its inaugural meeting held under the auspices of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the African Union and the United Nations, on 7 June in Abidjan, the Support Group in Mali set up by the African Union Peace and Security Council (CPS) at the 314th meeting, noted “the great fragility of the institutions set up as part of the process of restoring the constitutional order following the coup d’état of March 20, 2012 as evidenced by the aggression of the Acting President of the Republic “. It is therefore necessary to strengthen the authority and powers of the Transitional Government to initiate negotiations with the MNLA and other representatives under the auspices of the African Union, ECOWAS and the countries concerned (Algeria, Mauritania).

Tuaregs to reach an agreement dealing with the problems in depth and that would be, this time, with mechanisms ensuring respect. The agreement must, of course, imply the effective renunciation of rebellion to any armed action.

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