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Recently, fault current limiter is an efficient way to
overcome many of the power system errors. The main purpose of fault current
limiters is to limit current flowing through the network. As an effective technique
of fault current limiting, superconducting fault current limiters are used. SFCLs
are strong surge protectors, they are acting as circuit breakers or fuses in
order to overcome dangerous errors. They are advantageous devices to use
because of the characteristics of superconductors. The working principle of
SFCL is based on phase change. It is the ability to switch between
superconducting state and nonsuperconducting state of material. In electrical
terms, superconductor materials have zero resistance against DC current. When a
fault occurs in system, their resistance rises sharply from zero to finite at
higher current densities. At the same time, superconductors have much higher
current carrying capacity than the normal metals. These materials carry the
current as lossless as long as the temperature is below the critical value.

These are the main properties of an ideal fault current
limiter:

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– Increasing the impedance before the first peak

– Invisible to network in normal operation

Superconducting fault current limiters have three basic
categories which are resistive, inductive shielded-core and inductive
saturable-core. The resistive and inductive-shielded-core types utilize
quenching movement of superconducters. The inductive shielded-core type depends
on HTS magnet windings in order to saturate the iron core.

a) Resistive SFCL

This type of SFCL has advantages such as simpler structure,
smaller size and lower investment cost compared to other types. Superconductor
connected in series to network circuit. In resistive SFCL, current passes
straight through the superconducting element. A parallel resistance is necessary
to be connected with the superconductor.  This type utilize the superconductor as carrier
under normal condition. The attitude of resistive SFCL is usually decided by
the type and length of material.

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