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     Racism has occurred throughout the history of the world with one of the biggest occurrence happening in South Africa for a majority of the 20th century. Apartheid was a former policy of segregation and political and economic discrimination against non-European groups. This policy was popular in South Africa during the 20th Century after the National Party Of South Africa took power of the country during 1948. The government they placed was purely white and immediately started to enact already existing policies of racial segregation under a system of legislation called apartheid. This made non-white South Africans and the majority of the country’s population completely separated and isolated from the white population with the two populations being forced to live in separate areas and separate buildings built specifically for certain ethnic groups. Massive outcry against these racist policies was common but remained status quo in South Africa’s politics for 50 years until President F.W de Klerk and his government removed most of these policies and legislation in the early 1990’s. New laws were even put in place that supported apartheid and divided the people of South Africa even more. One prime example would be the South African government banning all marriages between whites and all other ethnic groups in the country. This ultimately stops multicultural lovers from getting married to each other stopping or at least significantly hindering the number of mixed children from being born. This can lead to speculation that the government did this to help better separate whites from other groups so they can apply more racist policies in the country and to purify the white population from any “corruption” that they perceive in mixed white children. Favoritism is also shown towards white at this time period as well. Many land acts were created to hand over 80 percent of the country’s land to the white population. Laws were also set in place for any non-whites to carry documents when entering restricted white exclusive land.        Apartheid had many forms of resistance starting from non-violent demonstrations to rebellion. When apartheid policies were starting to be put more in place and grew a stronger influence in how the government is run activists groups rose as well to oppose the racist policies enforced by the South African government. One of these groups were called themselves the Congress of the People and in 1955 they adopted a freedom charter asserting”South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black or white.” In response, the government broke up on of their meetings and arrested 150 charging them all with high treason. This ultimately shows that the leaders of the nation at this point in history are extreme authoritarians and did crackdowns on anyone who opposes their views. Five years later in 1960 at the black township of Sharpeville, police fired against a group of unarmed black men associated with another group of activists called the Pan-African Congress killing 67 blacks and wounding 180. This event inspired the PAC and its mother group the ANC established a military resistance. Unfortunately, within a year most leaders of the armed resistance were sentenced to prison or executed with one of these leaders being Nelson Mandela, one of the founders of Umkhonto we Sizwe translating into “Spear of the Nation” in English and the official military wing of the ANC.         Mandela was imprisoned and most resistance leaders dead or imprisoned hopes for an apartheid-free South Africa were slipping away with their defeat. However, through their defeat and his imprisonment people across the world began to take notice of South Africa’s racist government and authoritarian rule on the country. This lead to the apartheid of South Africa to become an international issue giving support to Mandela’s cause. Throughout the next couple of decades, resistance against apartheid still occurred across the entire country with one protest during 1976 outside of Johannesburg saw police opening fire with tear gas and guns. Following this, the United States and Great Britain implemented economic sanctions on the country as punishment for their crackdowns and police brutality against non-white ethnic groups. In 1989 massive change within the National Party occurred thanks to people across the world opposing apartheid, F.W De Klerk replaced the more conservative Pieter Botha and repealed the Population Registration Act and much of the other apartheid legislation in the country. On May 10, 1994, Nelson Mandela became the first black president in the history of South Africa. Under his presidency, he improved damaged race relations, formed the multiracial ” Government of National Unity,” and enacted a new constitution based on majority rule that prohibited discrimination against all minorities that made the government a non-white majority ending the apartheid system. In conclusion, apartheid was a big social justice issue in South Africa since it lead to discrimination, racism, and unfair treatment towards those who weren’t white. This ultimately divided the entire country into two and created a us vs them mentality amongst the people which goes against social justice since it promotes equality and fair treatment towards all members of a society.                 

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