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Preparation of activated carbon
from coconut shell (CS) by physical activation has been reported (Li et al.,
2008, Budi et al., 2014, and Pradeep et al., 2016).  Li et al., prepared activated carbon
from CS by physical steam activation with various carbonization
temperatures.  The result showed
activated carbon samples derived from high temperature carbonized CS chars had
higher BET surface area, total volume, micropore volume and yield (Li et
al., 2008,).  In other work described
a preparation of CS activated carbon by physical activation with various
temperatures (532, 700 and 868  ?C),
argon gas pressures (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and times (10, 60
and 120 minutes). The results showed that as the activation parameters
increased, the pore sizes were reduced and distributed uniformly (Budi et
al., 2014).  Pradeep et al.,
reported coconut shell activated carbon prepared by physical steam activation
at activation temperature (900 – 1100  
?C) can be used in waste water purification for the reduction of total
dissolved salts (TDS) by exposed the CS activated carbon to the waste water for
20-30 minutes and expected to completely removed TDS by stirring with activated
carbon for about 70 minutes.


Activated carbons were prepared
from coconut shell by chemical activation using different activating agents
sodium hydroxide (NaOH), hydrochloric acid (HCl), zinc chloride (ZnCl2),
phosphoric acid (H3PO4), and potassium hydroxide (KOH) (Tan
et al., 2014, Cazetta et al., 2011, Tan et al., 2017,
Bernard et al., 2013, Gratuito et al., 2008, Zhang et
al., 2017, and Khalil et al., 2013). 
Tan et al., modified a commercial CS activated carbon by
impregnation of different concentrations of NaOH with different dwelling times
and found out that 32 % concentration of NaOH with 3 h dwelling time provided
the best CS activated carbon for carbon dioxide adsorption capacity (Tan et
al., 2014).  Cazetta et al., produced
by CS activated carbon by chemically activation using NaOH at various
impregnation ratios of NaOH:char (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1).  The result showed CS activated carbon with
3:1 impregnation ratio produce highest BET surface area and had methylene blue
adsorption capacity of 916 mg/g (Cazetta et al., 2011). Tan et al., suggest
that CS activated carbon treated with 1M HCl is better than the one that
treated with 1M NaOH and 2M HCl in terms of their BET surface area and the
pores structure (Tan et al., 2017). 
Bernard et al., 2013 produced CS activated carbon by ZnCl2
chemical activation at 500   ?C that
capable to remove metal ions from electroplating industrial wastewater.  The percentage metal ions removal approached
equilibrium within 40 min for lead ions (100 %), 80 min for both iron ion (76.02
%) and copper ion (71.26 %) and 60 min for zinc ion (26.15 %) (Bernard et
al., 2013).  Gratuito et al suggest
an optimum point of producing CS activated carbon by chemically activated using
H3PO4 from response surface methodology result.  The points are 1.725 for impregnation ratio,
19.5 min for activation time and 416  ?C
for activation temperature (Gratuito et al., 2008).  Zhang et al., 2017 suggest a rapid
cooling method after chemically activated CS chars with H3PO4 and
produced CS activated carbon with increased of pore size and surface area as
compared to slow cooling method.

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A study suggests that CS activated
carbon that produced by physically activated using carbon dioxide have better
porosity and micropore volume as compared to the one that produced by
activating with carbon dioxide with employing potassium phosphate as a catalyst
for carbon gasification and from chemically activation with H3PO4
(Laine & Yunes , 1992).  Other
researchers suggest that CS activated carbon produced by chemically activation
with KOH have less mesoporosity and BET surface area as compared to palm oil
empty fruit bunch activated carbon and bamboo stem activated carbon produce by
same activation method (Khalil et al., 2013).

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