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Political change has caused the deaths of millions and great empires to come to their knees. The Roman republic started crumbling when it transformed from a democratic states to an autocratic state governed by an emperor. People are thrown into disarray when anything that does not conform to their beliefs and norms become widely accepted by another group. This human instinct has defended against many unforeseen evils as much as it has ruined many opportunities to greatness. In 19th century America, the threat was not an autocratic government but political radicals. Political radicals believed in using revolutionary means to alter social structure whereas many Americans did not hold such views; they believed in a market-based economy with a government to oversee all activities as a sovereign body, and these conflicting ideas, augmented by a time of distress,World War I and the Great Depression, caused unprecedented animosity towards people holding radicalistic principles.In the years prior to World War I, every working class American, regardless of race or nationality, wanted a change in the social system, an institution that made the rich richer and the poor poorer. The emergence of political bodies such as the Socialist party and Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) created a new line of thought.”A struggle must go on until the workers of the world organize as a class, take possession of the earth and the machinery of production, and abolish the wage system.”(Preamble of the Constitution of IWW). They wanted to build a democratic worker-run society with little government involvement. Government involvement in business favored the wealthy corporate leaders. Industrial workers and farmers alike wanted a stricter government and a fair distribution of the national cake.  In 1917, the Bolshevik Revolution put a communist party in power in Russia. This generated a small communist party in America. Communists were blamed for every unfortunate occurrence in America from high prices to strikes. As time progressed, people started adopting severe methods to achieve this goal. Some anarchists believed that violence could make the necessary changes whereas socialists and communists wanted a new system of government. Radicals were labeled as ‘Reds’ for their use of violence. Hysteria was always lurking around in the minds of people. Bomb explosions and murders lay the perfect platform to persecute suspects. Nationwide marches against radicals whose ‘Americanism’ was suspect was rampant; with WW1 creating a strong nativist feeling among Americans. Events such as the red scare rationalized anti-redism and anti-foreignism Many Americans who had anti-war sentiments developed isolationist attitude toward Europeans. Americans needed to stay out of Europeans politics and affairs. As secretary of state, Charles Evans Hughes said to anguished Europe that America was going, and staying, home. America will live by American ideology. Political radicals faced severely harsh treatment from other Americans during the period that stretched from post-World War I to the end of World War II. Judges were biased against radicals; free and fair trials were off the table when a radical was one trial. Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, two Italian anarchist were convicted in 1921 of the murder of a paymaster and his bodyguard and sentenced to death in 1927 although the evidence provided against them had serious flaws. Attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer earned the nickname “Fighting Quaker” by his thirst to root out radicals. The threat of deportation was a constant threat to suspects. In December 1919, 249 alleged alien radicals were deported. States passed Criminal Syndicalism Laws to protect against anarchists and IWW. ‘Criminal Syndicalism Laws made it a crime to defend, set-up or advocate the use of violence, sabotage or any form of crime to seek social change'(USLegal.com). In California, one could be convicted for joining the IWW. Also, in New Mexico, an employer could be prosecuted for hiring an anarchist. Some sympathizers reasoned that American lawmakers had defiled a strong American principle that set her apart from European tyrants; the freedom of speech. Anti-redism was so strong that five socialists were denied their seats among New York legislators although they had lawfully won the seats. At this point, democracy was so tainted that there was not much noticeable difference between Europe and America. American had started to persecute political minorities. Although Eugene Debs had managed to clock in 1 million votes for the Socialist party, it was still not considered a viable third national party. Debs, Mother Jones and other strong radicals pushed for immediate change through the Socialist party and IWW. With the death of Eugene Debs in 1927, the radicalism begun to crumble. The IWW held onto the lost fragments operations of labor unions such as boycotts and strikes. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) had ceased to incorporate severe methods in her operations. Radicalism was choked out of politics. Political radicals is one group that witnessed severe monstrosity as an outcome of World War 1.  The war caused a hysteria that will live in the minds of people for about 70 years after its end. Openly admitting that one was a radical could result in unemployment, incarceration or the crush of one’s political dreams. For radicals, like the anarchists, the end of their plight came at the onset of WW2 whereas the communists will suffer disgust until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. Political radicals believed in using revolutionary means to alter social structure where as many Americans did not hold such views; they believed in a market-based economy with a government to oversee all activities as a sovereign body, and these conflicting ideas, augmented by a time of distress,World War I and the Great Depression, caused unprecedented animosity towards people holding radicalistic principles.

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