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Plato is an ancient Greek philosopher and was a student of
Socrates and a teacher of Aristotle. In his writing, he talks about justice,
beauty , and equality, as well as political philosophy. Republic by Plato is one of the top-ten most influential works on
politics ever. Throughout his book and specifically the chapter I will be
speaking upon which is chapter eight, Plato’s main questions are: What is
justice? And what leads to democracy? Plato attempts to figure out what a just
city is like and what a just man looks like as well how democracy comes to be.
Throughout my paper, I will be talking about Plato’s argument towards just
cities and democracy, but specifically, his argument in which states: Cities
come to be certain ways because of the ways their individual people are. If
that’s true, then there must be as many kinds of people as there are kinds of
cities. So, there are as many kinds of people as there are kinds of cities. I
do not agree with his statement so I will be giving my argument against his as
well as an objection to my argument and why mine would be successful.

To start off, Plato gives a very detailed description of what he
believes a just city is and what a just man looks like. To Plato, these
descriptions seem normal, but to a regular person, they are a bit strange.  Some of the features Plato’s believes make a
just city are that  wives must be in
common, children and all their education must be in common. Plato is stating
that he believes that there should be an extreme censorship in education in
order for children to grow up only learning good values and never learn things
that would be bad for them.  He believes
that sex is only restricted by the rulers. When a mother is in her childbearing
years, the rulers can decide who can have sex with who and after they complete
that, anything except incest would be allowed. I found this very strange that
the rulers would decide who can have sex with you if he wants to create a just
city, why can’t people pick who they want to have sex with? Finally, Plato
discussed that rulers and soldiers don’t get to own property. “As soon as the rulers are established, they
will lead the soldiers and settle them in the kind of dwelling as a wage for
their guardianship and look after themselves and the rest of the city” (Republic
213-214).  Plato believes that the rulers
and soldiers should look over the city, so they should not be allowed to own
any property.  Plato believes that this
society is aristocracy since it is good and just.

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As he is in his conversation with Socrates, he talks about going
through inferior cities which consist of the: victory-loving and honor-loving,
oligarchic which resembles and is ruled by a man driven society with necessary
appetites, the democratic which resembles and is ruled by a man driven by his
unnecessary appetites and then tyrannical which resembles and is ruled by a man
driven by his unlawful appetites.  Each of these cities is worse than the
other, with a tyranny being the most wretched form of government, and the
tyrannical man the most wretched of. Plato thinks that there is a different
kind of person for each of these corresponding cities.  Socrates states that there are five different
cities so there must five different type of men. Plato thinks that a democratic
city arises from the money-loving and oligarchic city. Plato’s definition of
democracy is a political system where every person has an equal chance to rule.
“Democracy “distributes a sort of
equality to both equals and unequal’s alike” (Republic 228). This consists of where rulers are not
elected by popular vote and the rulers are typically chosen by chance. “And I suppose that democracy comes about
when the poor are victorious, killing some of their opponents and expelling
others, and giving the rest an equal share in ruling under the constitution,
and for the most part assigning people to positions of rule by lot”
(Republic 227). He believes the rich rulers raise their children in luxury and
then they become weak and then the poor start to revolt. Although Plato
discusses how he views a democracy, he does have a few main complaints about
them. He thinks that not everybody would make a good ruler, every desire is not
equally worth satisfying and that education and all different forms are not all
as equally good. Plato believes democracy leads to one of the other cities
mentioned above which is tyranny.

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