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materials have become essential part of our daily life, resulting over 150
million tons of worldwide production annually. Approximately 35 % of plastic
products are used in packing and in general, chemical resistance, barrier and
water-proof properties, relatively low weight and transparency and of course,
cheapness have made the plastics widely-used. Heavily usage of plastics has
increased plastic waste significantly. Additionally, after end of useful life
of plastics, they cause problems as their degradation is difficult or in other
words, they are non-biodegradable. With adoption new technologies and increase
in fuel price has evolved field of solid waste management. Commercial scale
equipment are being created for conversion of waste plastics into fuel in US,
Europe and Asia. As a result of these technologies, advantages become two-fold;
plastics are transformed into needed fuel source mitigating level of
landfilling and alternative energy source from quite plenty and almost no-cost
feedstock is obtained which has ability to be applied permanently and reliably.
The conversion facility relies on pyrolysis process and through decades this
technology has been tried to commercialize and make economically-feasible

2 The
“Polyflow” Company designed to process 20 tons of waste plastics per day. For
annual production 6800 tons of waste plastics will be converted. The raw
material is brought from Balakhani Industrial Park. Each day 1000-1100 tons of
waste are given to the Balakhani IP and only 10 % of it is recyclable and from
this 2 % are required recyclable plastics that PolyFlow Company will process. Company’s
conversion rate is 96% which indicates that from 1 kg feed 960 ml fuel oil is
produced. However, quality and yield of the product depend on the type of the
raw materials as LDPE (low density polyethylene), HDPE (high density
polyethylene), PS (polystyrene), PP (polypropylene) are preferable rather than
PVC (polyvinylchloride) and PET (polyethylene-terephthalate). Coming to the
technology, the continuous operating facility reverses the plastic production,
meaning hydrocarbon chains within polymers are cracked to their building
hydrocarbons under pyrolysis process (cracking without presence of oxygen) with
specific distillation of product gas. Company’s outputs are diesel (65%) about
930 liters, gasoline (20%) about 330 liters, kerosene (10%) about 150 liters, carbon
black (5%) about 60 kilogram and gas fraction (5%) about 180 m3 are obtained
daily from each tons of waste plastics. The latter one used within the plant,
remaining is sold and shipped daily to the internal market.

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Technology: 3, 4 For the plant technology, Klean Industries
Inc. (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) has been referred. Raw material
firstly comes to washer and drier to obtain moisture content and after size
reduction is also applied to remove metals or other contaminations. Then
melting occurs within furnace reactor and ZSM-5 catalyst (which is the member
of zeolite family and the best option in economic point of view) is added to
increase yield of the desired liquid fraction (diesel) and decrease temperature
and energy requirement in turn. Additionally higher temperature (>500
Celsius) increases the rate of gas fraction and char production so, it is
needed to maintain operation temperature 300-500 Celsius. Residue of the
furnace- carbon black- accounts for 4% of input feed. Produced fluid comes to
distillation column and syngas and fuel oil are separated here. Syngas is used
as a fuel in the furnace to reduce demand on natural gas. Fuel oil can be sold
to refineries, however considering long term period in terms of economics and
to increase customers, additional column is bought for further processing of
fuel oil. Fuel oil is forwarded to the vacuum distillation column for further
separation into gas fraction, gasoline, kerosene and diesel. Gas fraction is
used for power supply via CHP (combined heat and power) unit. 87.5 kW energy is
gained from here and additional energy requirement falls to 105kW.

Output quality and yield: Obtained fuel from waste
plastics have quite high properties and purity as the sulfur content of it is
less than 0.25% which is much lower than the amount found in regular petrol
(3%). Hence, octane rating of the gasoline is 95 and over. Produced diesel has
high cetane number (45-50) and it can be used after blending with pump diesel
before using in vehicles. Such purity is achieved as raw material contamination
with PET and PVC are maintained low enough via requiring sorted waste plastics
from Balakhani IP. The high viscosity increases fuel consumption, load on
engine and consequently engine temperature and friction. Fuel obtained in
Polyflow will have 1.98cSt viscosity which is comparably lower than regular
petrol (9.1cSt). Higher density results low consumption of fuel. Density of
fuel from plastics is between 0.7477-0.7943 g/cc which is close to regular
amount (0.8449- 0.92 g/cc). As it can be seen, conventional fuels can be
replaced by fuels from waste plastics and can enter the market. 5

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