Plants not only
produce fruits and vegetables but also give important secondary metabolites
which constitute an important source of therapeutics broadly used in
pharmaceutical drugs (Shah et al.,
2012). Use of plants as drugs and remedies for multiple human diseases is
centuries old and plant extracts use as a traditional medicine approximately 62-
80% of the world total population (Amin et
al.,2011;Venkatesan et al:2009).
The crude extracts of plant segments and phytochemicals of identified
antimicrobial properties is of huge importance in therapeutic cure (Nayak et al., 2015). The anti-microbial
activity of plant extracts may inhabit in a variety of different components,
including aldehyde and phenolic compounds (Jan et al., 2012).
Berberis is a most important
dicotyledonous genus belong to the Berberidaceae family; mostly spiny, woody,
deciduous or evergreen shrubs otherwise little trees with feature yellow wood
and flowers from 1 to 5 m high with thorny shoots, inhabitant to the temperate (Khan
et al.,2016; Madiseh et al.,2014).
Family Berberidaceae which is
represented by around 12 genera and 600 species. Berberis is the major genus with around 500 species. The berberis
is represented by 3 genera and 20 species in Pakistan. (Bhardwaj et al., 2012;
Dad et al., 2017).
Berberis into two groups Septentrionales and Australes. The
group Septentrionales (Old World) consists of ca 300 species occurring mostly
in Eurasia but extending to North America (two species) and North Africa (four
species). The group Australes (New World) contains about 200 species with most
of them distributed in South America and a few in Middle America.(Roy et
al.,2010).The genus includes several species such as B. integerrima Bunge, B. crataegina DC, B. vulgaris L., B. orthobotrys
Bienert ex, B. lyceum Berberis aquifolium (Oregon grape),
Berberis aristata (Indian barberry), Berberis thunbergii (red barberry),
Berberis vulgaris (barberry) and Berberis orthobotrys (named “ishkeen” in
Pakistan).( Madiseh et al.,2014
; Alamgeer et al.,2016).
roots of Berberis species are working
as an anti-periodic, diaphoretic and antipyretic, and its action was supposed
to be as powerful as quinine. The shout is used as a tonic, anti-periodic, cardio
vascular, hepato-protective, antimicrobial and anti-cancerous activities.(
Srivastava et al.,2015).
Berberis has been helpful in cure of cancer, diabetes,
jaundice, spleenomegaly, AIDS, bone disorder, cardiovascular ailments, ocular
trachoma, hypertension, infectious diseases, cholera, diarrhea, wounds,
intestinal colic, dysentery, amoebiasis, eye
troubles, leprosy, antimalaric, anti-inflammatory, fever, inflammation, stomachache, urinary tract infection,
throat infection, gingivitis (Khan et al.,2015; Mattana et al.,2012; Manosalva
et al.,2016; Malik et al.,2017).
genus has a variety of compound such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids,
steroids, phenolic Alkaloids, terpenes, glucosinolates and carbohydrates. Some
potentially bioactive constituents such as berberine, berbamine, berberuin,
palmatine, oxyacanthine, malic acid, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, ursolic acid,
coumarin and beta carotene.(Claudia et al., 2012; Furrianca et al., 2017;
Bayani et al.,2016). Phenolic, Anthocyanins, Anthocyanins and carotenoid show
inhibitory property on capillary permeability, cytoprotective and
anticholinergic, antihistaminergic, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant activities.(Hosseinihashemi
et al., 2017).