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Physiological Disorders and their CareAs a part of my studies I have to produce evidence of my understanding of two different types of physiological disorders. I have chosen type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease (dementia). Type 2 diabetes occurs when the human body cells do not react to insulin it creates or because the human body does not produce enough insulin. Alzheimer’s disease is a common form of dementia; NHS choices (2018) explains that ”dementia is a progressive neurological disease which affects multiple brain functions including memory”.Diabetes has an impact on the human body systems and functions. The five main body systems affected are: digestive system, endocrine system, urinary system, nervous system and muscular system. Diabetescouk (2018) explain that the digestive system is affected when the nerves controlling the stomach are damaged by high blood glucose levels. Also the endocrine system is affected by having high blood glucose levels as the body is unable to respond to insulin effectively. The presence of glucagon also raises blood glucose levels as the body is less able to respond to it. As a result the pancreas needs to produce more insulin to lower blood glucose levels. In addition the urinary system is also affected because if the blood has too much glucose then the kidneys will remove the glucose from the blood in urine. Furthermore the nervous system is affected because if an individual has high blood glucose levels for a long period of time they could potentially damage blood vessels and this therefore leads to nerves being damaged which then causes loss of feeling in the body. Finally the muscular system is affected by diabetes because muscles use glucose from the blood (which lowers blood sugar levels). This means if the body doesn’t have enough insulin in the blood then the glucose can’t fuel the muscles.The primary causes for diabetes include the pancreas being unable to produce the insulin needed in order to maintain a normal blood glucose level. The second primary cause is because of insulin resistance (this is due to the fact that the human body can’t use any insulin produced from the pancreas). Other factors that cause or improve the risk of diabetes include genes, weight and age. If somebody is obese or overweight they then have a higher risk of getting diabetes. Similarly older people tend to exercise less and therefore gain more weight which could cause diabetesThe signs and symptoms for diabetes consist of:? Injuries that heal slowly (e.g cuts)? Being/feeling tired? Unexplainable weight loss? Lens in the eye is dry causing blurred vision? Urinating more frequently? Being/feeling thirsty? Being/feeling hungry? HeadachesAlzheimer’s disease has an effect on the human body systems and functions. The three main body systems affected are: nervous system; digestive system; and muscular system. Livestrong (2018) explain that the nervous system is affected by Alzheimer’s disease because amyloid plaques composed of specific proteins and pieces of dead brain cells progressively accumulates in the brain tissue. Also tau (brain protein) accumulates abnormally causing brain cells to malfunction and eventually die. The loss of functioning brain tissue initially causes problems with memory and learning. Furthermore the digestive system can also be affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Firstly swallowing difficulties occur, this means individuals have difficulty eating without choking. Swallowing difficulties lead to accidental entry of food or liquids into the airways; this is frequently the onset of pneumonia. Finally Alzheimer’s disease also has an effect on the muscular system. Individuals lose the ability to move muscles in purposeful ways. Some individuals lose the ability to walk. Additionally some patients lose the ability to maintain posture to sit in a chair safely.The main cause of Alzheimer’s disease is because the structure and function of parts of the brain are affected by atrophy (parts of the brain are shrinking). Other possible causes include: having down-syndrome; cardiovascular disease, age, head injuries and family history/genes.The signs and symptoms are:Early stage:? Being forgetful about object names, places, events, conversations.? Not wanting to take part in new activities? Forgetting what you have said so repeating yourself.? Struggle to make decisions Middle stage:? Trouble sleeping? Repeating actions? Becoming easily confused? Hallucinations? Delusions? Speech problems? Mood swings Later stage:? Loose ability to talk? Urinary and bowel incontinence? Dysphagia (problems eating and swallowing)? Potential weight loss or gain.The procedures used to diagnose diabetes are simple. Firstly a glycated haemoglobin test (HbAlc) can be used which shows the average blood glucose levels for the previous 3 months. This test can be taken at any time except from during pregnancy. Secondly a glucose tolerance test (GTT) can be performed which shows if the human body is struggling to produce glucose. A blood sample is taken before consuming a glucose drink and then is compared to a blood sample taken two hours after the drink is consumed. You cannot eat or drink certain foods and drinks for 8 hours before the test.In addition the procedures used to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease are very different. A mini mental state examination is used to determine if further testing is required. This examination consists of memorising a short list of objects and identifying the correct current date. Furthermore a brain scan can be performed to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease which would be a computerised tomography scan or a magnetic resonance imaging.In comparison the diagnostic test for diabetes costs a lot less to preform compared to the diagnostic test for Alzheimer’s disease. It takes more time to perform a brain scan compared to a blood test which means it will be more frustrating for service users to wait for. As a result of how complex a brain scan is it requires more specialist staff and therefore more training. Diabetes does not have a pre-test like Alzheimer’s disease does. The tests for diabetes are simple and quick and easy; 1000’s of tests will be performed every day. However the tests for Alzheimer’s disease take a lot more time and planning which means only a few 100’s will be performed daily. As a result less people will receive a diagnosis as quick.Treatment for diabetes is simple but takes a lot of will power. It is important that a person with diabetes self medicates by making lifestyle changes. To begin with the individual needs to exercise regularly in order to loose weight. Also the individual should eat healthy making sure they reduce the amount of fat and sugar consumed. As well as this an individual needs to reduce calorie intake to loose weight. It is only necessary to loose weight if the person is overweight. On the other hand doctors can help to treat diabetes by prescribing medication. NHS choices (2018) explains that the three medicines mainly used are:1) Metformin- to reduce the amount of glucose that the liver produces and releases. Also helps the human body cells to be more responsive.2) Piogliazone- helps more glucose be taken from the blood as the body cells become more sensitive to insulin. 3) Sulphonyiureas- increases the amount of insulin the pancreas produces.Finally diabetes can also be treated by having insulin injections.Support is available for people with diabetes. First of all there are support groups available where a person can share experiences and gain help on a problem they have. Additionally a person with diabetes who received medication will have free prescriptions and eye examinations. in some rare cases those who’s diabetes had a significant effect on their lives will be able to claim disability and incapacity benefits.Unfortunately there are very few types of care available for a person with diabetes. Initially a doctor can help by prescribing treatments and diagnosing. Being in hospital can help an individual as staff can run tests in order to diagnose diabetes; also a hospital is able to provide treatment for severe symptoms from diabetes. Finally a diabetic clinic can help care for a diabetic and is perhaps the best type of care because it is a specialist service and has the correct training and experience.There is no knows cure for Alzheimer’s disease which means treatment can only reduce the effects of symptoms or slow down the process. Medication is most common in slowing down the progress of Alzheimer’s disease, and improving symptoms. On the other hand a care plan can be used to treat Alzheimer’s disease as it puts in place support that everyone involved needs, for the present and future. A way in which a person with Alzheimer’s disease could self medicate would be by preparing for Alzheimer’s disease immediately after diagnosis. For example having diaries and calendars to help memory and a list of phone numbers near the phone for emergencies and also by labelling everything to prevent anger and confusion. Support for Alzheimer’s disease is simple but involves time and patience. Charities can help support people living with Alzheimer’s disease. For example the Alzheimer’s society and dementia uk. Family may require support as well. They can use social media (for example talking point) or books written about dementia in order to receive advice and have their questions answered.There are many types of care available to people suffering with Alzheimer’s disease. To begin with family carers are available and most likely the preferred choice of care because it allows the suffering to live at home where they feel most comfortable. Likewise; community nurses are available to provide care for people with Alzheimer’s disease, it is there duty to visit patients at their homes and to provide care at their homes meaning a patient can still live at home. They would do this by assessing the persons needs at home and advising a way in which a persons quality of life can improve. Alternatively an occupational therapist can set up adjustments that may be needed for an individuals home in order to improve their needs for example if a person can no longer walk then a stair lift would be provided. People suffering with Alzheimer’s disease may need to live at a residential care home or nursing home therefore receiving support from care workers or nurses this is necessary when a person is unable to cook and clean for themselves. It would only get to this stage if no family are available for support or if the individual requires 24/7 care.The types of care for a person with Alzheimer’s is much different to the types of care for a person with dementia. A person with diabetes is able to live alone and can carry on with normal daily activities whereas someone with Alzheimer’s disease needs support either 24/7 or throughout most of the day and will struggle to carry out most daily activities. On the other hand  care for an individual with Alzheimer’s disease and a person with diabetes are similar as both disorders require care from a doctor who would prescribe both individuals with medication. Additionally someone with Alzheimer’s disease would need a nurse and care worker to look after them, however a person with diabetes will be able to not receive this support as they are able to take care of themselves. A service user with Alzheimer’s disease would need to use a residential care home in order to live safely. A diabetic wouldn’t need to do this. Furthermore a person with diabetes will need help when taking insulin injections or perhaps may need someone to do this for them such as a nurse. A person with Alzheimer’s disease however would have their family or a care worker help them to take medication. 

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