People should also consider
alternative diet and should not only
depend on rice and corn as staple food. Achieving sustainable food security can be done by focusing on a strategy,
for example simply increasing food production, or just altering diets (Gofray and Garnett
We should consider eating root crops like sweet
potato, cassava and taro. These crops can be made into flour that can offer a variety
of food choices. It is time to modify our food preference not only to achieve a
healthy environment but a healthy body as well. “Food security poses a
major challenge but argue that it can be met by changing diets, reducing waste
or by a radical reorganizing of the politico-economic landscape .” (Gofray and Garnett , 2014) .
According to Federoff et. al.
(2017),” the design and largescale implementation of farms based on non-traditional
species in arid places will undoubtedly pose new research, engineering,
monitoring, and regulatory challenges, with respect to food safety and
ecological impacts as well as control of pests and pathogens. But if we are to
resume progress toward eliminating hunger, we must scale up and further build
on the innovative approaches already under development, and we must do it as
soon as possible “.
However, in contrast, backyard
farming/small scale farming could have positive impacts. If there is additional
space outside the house , people can consider vertical gardening or even hydroponics technique to grow their own food.
This is called subsistence agriculture wherein the family can provide their own
food and be self-sufficient .This type of farming does not require complex
machineries and require less inputs. However, if
households will plan to sell some of their products for commercialization, they
should have entrepreneurial skills to increase marketability and diversify
their source of livelihood.
Tscharntke et. Al. (2012) argues
that the current backbone of global food security in the developing world is agriculture
practiced under smallholder farmer-dominated landscapes and not large-scale
is recycling of nutrients since animal waste are also being used as fertilizers
(green manure). Another pillar of food security is food utilization which is
important in the household level, which brings together both the quality of the
food and other complementary factors such as safe water that underpin good
nutritional outcomes or every individual in the household are adequate. This is
a very complex pillar. First,
food can be obtained by a household through purchase or production provided
that the right types of food is given
for all family members. Lack of
diversity in diet results to sickness due to mineral and micronutrient deficiencies
leading to malnutrition. Second, contaminated water and poor sanitation
increases the possibility of disease contraction and third, mothers need more
adequate time to feed their growing children.
in the farm is often not acknowledged or understood while conventional
intensification tends to disrupt beneficial functions of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation linked with agricultural intensification and hunger
reduction requires efficient regional and targeted solutions.
According to Gofray and Garnett
(2014), maintaining current
levels of production must be obtained with less impact on the environment. Production must not be ‘intensified’ but
rather ‘sustainably intensify’ production. “Second, the goal of increased
production must not dominate the food sustainability agenda”.
Through genetic improvement and from greater use of
sustainable inputs there will be an increase in productivity. The use and improvement
of conventional and molecular breeding, as well as molecular genetic
modification (GM), both in the private and public research sectors is essential
for our existing food crops to adapt to decreased water availability in some
places and flooding in others, to increasing temperatures, rising salinity and changing pathogen ( Federoff et. al., 2017).
A more environmentally-friendly agricultural system
can be achieved through a combination of
quantitative systems research, development of best practices and legislation. A
problem-oriented, interdisciplinary research is needed to manage the
growing complexity of managing Nitrogen in sustainable agricultural systems ( Spiertz, 2009).
Altieri (2012) stated that case
studies from Brazil, Cuba, Africa and Philippines are presented to demonstrate
how the agroecological development paradigm based on the revitalization of
small farms which emphasizes synergy, diversity, integration and recycling, and
social processes that value community engagement and empowerment is perhaps one of the only viable options to meet
present and future food needs . “Given
the present and predicted near future climate, energy and economic scenarios,
agroecology has emerged as one of the most robust pathways towards designing
biodiverse, productive, and resilient agroecosystems available today” (Altieri