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safety issue occurs in most health care setting. The outcome indicator of patient
safety such as fall, pressure ulcer or medication error is used to benchmark
the quality of care in Malaysia. Patient safety can be defined as “the
reduction of risk of unnecessary harm associated with healthcare to an
acceptable minimum” and quality of care means “a process that must guarantee
each patient the combination of diagnostic and therapeutic acts that will
ensure the best results in terms of health” (World Health Organization, 2015). Study
by Steelman et al., (2013) shown it is identified that most common patient
safety issue include pressure injuries, medication error, wrong
site/procedure/patient surgery and retained surgical items. Similar study by
Athanasakis (2012) also identified that the most common concern patient safety
issue are falls, use of wrong equipment, pressure injuries, hospital infection,
and medication error. Besides, medication error, pressure injuries and patient
fall are top 10 issues in patient safety in Malaysia (MOH, 2013). Patient
safety during hospitalization is the priorities of healthcare providers, which
mean to perform care in the safest environment possible and prevention of
medical error as well (Koppenberg, 2012). . According to Kim (2013), the most
common type of medical error in health care setting is medication error. He
continues that medication error resulted in negative consequences, including
long hospital stays, increased economic burden and threat to patients’ lives.
It was supported by Gunningberg, Stotts, &
Idvall (2011) that shown the presence of pressure ulcer will reduce the
quality of patient’s life and increased patient’s medical cost.  Currently
there is limited study assess the relationship between the level of practice of
ICU nurses and adverse event rate. Research can be done to explore the level of
practice of nurses and it relationship with adverse event rate in Malaysia.


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