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Parturition, is also called
childbirth. This is the way of giving birth during labour. This
happen 15 days of planned date. (,
2016). During the first stage of labour,
the cervix becomes thinner and stretches as the baby’s head fall downwards involving
with the pelvis. This takes 4-8 hours, in women who may be having their second
or first baby.
(NHS.Choice, 2018).


The first stage of labour consist of three different stages, which are; the Latent Stage
is when the uterus starts to tense regularly with the Braxton Hicks contractions which is uneven
and do not usually hurt, it occurs at least every 10 minutes with lasting 20
seconds.The contractions cause the cervix to widen
and begin to open till it reaches 3cm opening. The active stage is from 3cm full
cervical opening (10cm) to when contractions becomes more frequent and
stronger. The cervix open at rate of 1cm or hour faster and last between 2-6
hours. And the Transition stage of labour is intense and It causes frequent
strong contraction occur every 2-3 minutes. (NHS.Choice, 2018)

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The Second stage of labour is
from the time of full opening of
the cervix until the baby is delivered. (,
2018). It consist of 2 initial part, the descent stage; where the baby’s head
moves down through the mother’s vagina. Followed by an active stage, where the mother feels the desire to push. (,
The pushing involves contracting the stomach muscles
in time with each uterine contraction and takes average of 20-40minutes to
deliver the baby. (, 2018).

the third stage of labour, the umbilical cord is
held and cut by the midwife/doctor. The remains shrinks up in few days to form
belly button.The
suckling of the rub at the breast by the baby, help gives the body oxytocin
hormone. (, 2018). This help contract the womb and push out the placenta
and reduces the amount of blood loss. (, 2018)

Birth hormones acts as chemical messengers. These hormones help co-ordinates the process of labour, which is the
expulsion of the foetus from the mother’s uterus. (, 2016).High levels
of progesterone prevent
uterine contractions while the baby is still developing. Therefore,
progesterone is decrease so that labour can occur.
If it is inhibited, that means the smooth muscles of the uterus can begin to
contract. This process is initiated by the baby. (, 2016).


The mother’s
pituitary gland release oxytocin hormone when the baby is fully developed and
ready for labour. This hormone stimulates contractions. (,

The baby’s adrenal
glands send a signal to start labour. (, 2017).The baby’s lungs release an enzyme when they are
fully developed and it causes prostaglandins to be released into the mother’s
system, helping to start labour. (, 2017). And along with another
hormone called relaxin,
relaxes the muscles of the cervix. This is important because the cervix must be
relaxed, if it is to stretch enough to allow the baby to pass through. (, 2018).


The body produces
calming and pain-relieving hormones called beta-endorphin
or catecholamine. This is
also known as the fight or flight hormones. High levels
of this hormone causes the oxytocin level to reduce and cause contractions to
slow down. Low levels of
endorphins can cause labour to be excessively painful and difficult to accept.
Prolactin is known as the mothering hormone. It increases during labour. It
plays a role in helping the new-born healthy development, and change to life
outside the womb. Low levels of prolactin may cause Poor transition of the baby
at the time of labour.    (,

umbilical cord connects the mother and foetal to the placenta. The blood
vessels in the umbilical cord supply oxygen to the foetal through the placenta.
The blood travels using two right to left shunts, that have small passages used
to direct blood that needs to be oxygenated. These shunts purpose is to bypass
certain body parts in particular, the lung and liver which may not be developed
fully during late pregnancy. The foremen ovale is the shunts that bypass the lungs.
It transport blood from the right to the left entrance of the heart. The dutus
arteriosus is another shunts that move blood from the pulmonary artery to that
of the aorta. (

The foetus receives oxygen nutrients transferred across
the placenta from the mother blood. The blood splits into three branches when
it flows through the umbilical cord and into the liver. The heart have a vein
called vena cava, which the blood reaches into. A shunt called ductus venosus
that allow oxygenated blood through the liver to vein and into the right
entrance of the heart also allow most of the blood from the mother.( ,1885)

When the umbilical cord is clamped at birth, oxygen nutrients
from the mother are not received by the baby. The lung expand during the first
breaths of life. When the lungs expand, the tiny air sacs of the lungs called alveoli
becomes cleared of fluid. The increase in the baby’s blood pressure and decrease
of blood flow in the lung causes less need for the ductus arteriosus. This
support the closing of this shunt. When changes increases pressure in the left
entrance of the heart, it reduce pressure in the right entrance of the heart,
that stimulate the closing of the foramen ovale. The closing of the ductus
arteriosus and foramen ovale help complete the transition of foetal and
new-born blood flow.(


Hormonal control of lactation is
through the suckling of an infant by the mother, occurs through endocrine
control. This involves prolactin hormone which help support the development of
the mammary gland of the breast , that help support the production of colostrum  milk through the process known as
lactogenesis. during lactogenesis , the breast functional changes help support
the release of milk from the breast. (Harmsen, 1995). The mammary gland secretion of breast milk
suckling triggers and stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior lobe
of the pituitary gland in the brain. (Harmsen, 1995). The
squeezing of milk from the alveoli to release milk is through the contraction of
the oxytocin hormone in the walls of the myoepithelial cells of the lactiferous
ducts. (Harmsen, 1995)


The Colostrum milk is the first early milk
produced since about 14 weeks of pregnancy. It is thick, sticky and yellowish and is particularly rich in immunoglobulin,
antimicrobial peptides (lactoferrin and lacto peroxidase) and other bioactive
molecule, including growth factors which are important for nutrition, growth
and development of newborn infants and also for passive immunity. (Harmsen, 1995).
It nutrient profile is
highly different from mature milk. It contains macronutrient like proteins, Carbohydrate,
fats and micronutrients like vitamins (A and K) and minerals. (Harmsen, 1995)

is produced in the first postpartum days and contains more protein, less fat
than breast milk. (Stephan,1990). Many of
the proteins are antibodies that help infant fight bad infections until its own
immune system develops. (Stephan,1990). Mature milk contains water, fat, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals, amino acids, enzymes, and white blood
cells called macrophages. (Stephan,1990). It changes
from colostrum to mature breast milk, which become more diluted and greater in
volume. When
breastfeeding is initiated, breast milk changes from foremilk, high in
water and lactose, to hind milk, high in fat and calories. (Harmsen, 1995).

Mothers who are either not able to produce milk or have
conditions that prevent them from breastfeeding can access milk through donor
banks. (AFO, 2011). These facilities collect
extra breast milk from lactating mothers and process it for distribution to
infants in need. (AFO, 2011). While colostrum known as Bovine maybe available for human consumption as
an over-the-counter supplement in capsule form. (AFO,


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