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Parental Style Assignment

Diana Baumrind had originally
identified 3 parenting styles which were later on built upon by Maccoby and
Martin leading to the creation of the 4th parenting style (508). The
4 different parenting style that was discussed in Donna Hancock Hoskins article
“Consequences of Parenting on Adolescent Outcomes” were: Authoritative
Parenting, Authoritarian Parenting, Permissive Parenting and Uninvolved Parenting.  All these parenting styles effect the
development and behaviour of the adolescent, which leave an impact on their
outcomes (507).

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Parenting is a style accepted to be the most effective style which can be identified
by its characteristics of high responsiveness and control in parents to their
children. This type of parenting focuses on what they expect from their
children and with that in mind the parents go along and act as the role models
to help teach the children how they should behave through learning by

It is known that through this type of
parenting style most children are less prone to externalizing behaviours (508)
and tend to be more socially accepted. The children of parents that engage in
the authoritative style are more likely to be more positive. They have happier
dispositions, have good control of their emotions and are more likely to
develop good social skills (508).

Parenting is the style which parents expect obedience and conformity and expect
rules to be obeyed without any explanation (509). This style is the result of
low responsiveness and high control. The parents in this style expect a lot
from their children but usually do not provide any feedback for their
expectations. These parents tend to perform conditioning of their children
through negative reinforcements and harsh punishment as they believe that their
children should live up to their expectation but usually do not provide any
feedback to help the child in reaching those goals. With that most parents
display low levels of trust and engagement with their child (509). As their
children develop they tend to show low social skills and high levels of
depression (509).  These children assume
that from their parent’s teaching (conditioning) that love is gained from
success. They are aggressive and they tend to have a hard time making choices
as most of the time they were expected to meet their parents demands and not
deviate as it would lead to harsh punishment.

Parenting is the style where parents have high responsiveness and low control.
Essentially the parents let their children live free and always there to
support them no matter their actions. They support their children’s desires and
actions while spending more time consulting for family matters (509). These
parents do not want to control their children’s behaviours and do not set rules
to how they should live (509). It is known that parents who do this type have
children who develop into trouble makers, they are highly susceptible to get
into substance abuse, and do not really care about school as much as the previous
two parenting styles. These children have a hard time to manage their habits as
they never had any rules to what they should or should not do, so they let
themselves go wild with nothing to stop them. As with their mischievousness,
the parents usually just say that “kids will just be kids” and that there is
not much you can do to change that.

Parenting, the style that most have deemed to be the most negative on children
(509). These parents, such as the name implies are simply not involved with
their children. They have low control and low responsiveness to the child. The
parents do not supervise their child and do not support the child’s self
regulation (509). These parents ignore the responsibilities of child rearing
and usually do not care for their children’s needs. Overall uninvolved parents
are emotionally distant from their children, show little affection to their
children and do not have much expectations for their children. Some parents
might actually be avoiding their children on purpose but some could be too busy
in their own issues to deal with their children. Studies have shown that
children raised with uninvolved parenting actually have drank almost double the
amount of alcohol than their authoritative household peers (509). These
children also used more drugs and tend to act delinquently by committing acts
from vandalism to rage (509). Children from these parenting styles also have
problems in a social setting as they have never felt the responsiveness or love
from their parents they find it hard to form attachments with ours in life.

In my personal experience, I believe
that my parents brought me up using an authoritative parenting style. I think
that this is the case as my parents were always responsive to my actions and
had high control in my up bringing. They were always a lot more supportive and
rarely acted harsh fully. That being said, they sometimes punished me but the
punishment was well deserved, leading to my positive well being. My parents had
always given fair and consistent disciple and had placed consequences and
expectations for my behaviour. As the article mentioned, children raised
through the authoritative style tend to have the lowest levels of depressions
and highest levels of school commitment (508), which in my case is true because
I like to commit as much as I can to my studies and to anything else that I am
focused one as I want to do the best I can. I personally do not think I
experience depression often, sometimes I might feel down but it soon fades
away.  I believe it is because of this
parenting style I am able to work independently, and I prefer to work that way,
and utilize reasoning behind my actions in order to reach expectations that I
set for myself, which are high for the sole reason to work harder to be able to
reach them.

Structure was a big factor in my upbringing as a family with married biological
two- parent families I was able to get access to many socioeconomic resources
and more important a huge investment in parental time, attention and support
(517).  With both parents there was more
positivity as both parents were parenting in the authoritative style so I was
able to grow to have the usage of high responsiveness and parental control.

and Community is another factor that indeed affected my upbringing.
 There was a collective efficacy in my
neighborhood as I was growing up (516). As most of my neighbors were friends
with each other and the children were also friend with one another, our parents
actively took care of us all as a group. Since all the parents were also the
same as mine where as they parented in an authoritative style, they were also
able to make sure that everyone else also followed those expectations and
behaved as a collective group.  With the collective
efficacy the number of delinquency in my community was drastically low and I
believe that this supportive dynamic in fact did lead to having positive
effects on our development. As my friends and I all had our parents looking
after us, molding us to be the best we can be.

Culture was another factor in my upbringing that had
an effect on who I am today.  From an Asian
household it is true that my obedience was emphasized and like the article
mentions, my parents had close involvement, devotion and they had made
sacrifices for my well being (515). My parents also believed that family- based
control was important for the stability and well being of the entire family
leading to having family being the important constant in us all.  I think that culture is always going to be a
part of me, as I was molded in it and will always have the positive effects
from it through out my life.

Reading this article, I would say that I do agree with the statements
made about the different effects and different styles on children. As I have
personally observed friends who had parents raise them in at least 3 of the
parenting styles; Authoritative, Authoritarian and Permissive. Children who
have been raised in authoritative household tend to very positive and
compassionate of others. It can be seen that their parents express great warmth
and nurturance and listen to their children. With that the children develop and
are able to learn how to be independent alongside caring for others. An example
of this is my friend Hassaan, just looking at him you can tell that he is happy
and is confident in himself, he is able to fit in with any group and have a
good time, and rarely does anyone see him lose his emotions in a fight or an
argument. Overall, he is a great guy and people just want to be his friend due
to his happy composition.

An example of authoritarian upbringing would be my friend Jason, he is
from an Asian background, and with their culture he is always expected to be
successful and his parents have their own expectations on what he should do.
When young he wanted to be some artists, but that was not even an option to his
parents and have raised him to believe that being an doctor is what he should
be. As following his parent’s wishes he is able to be obedient thus being able
to receive affection I believe Jason believes that affection does stem from
being successful.

And finally, an example of a permissible upbringing would be my friend
Alex. His parents almost had no rules or standards to his behaviour and never
enforced any type of consequences to his negative behaviour. With that, growing
up he was pretty much a bully and never tried in school leading him to having
low achievements. His parents did not really care about his problems as they
were just happy for him to be who he was.

These parenting styles do indeed effect the children behaviour. They
essentially mold the child for their future. Depending on how the child was
raised, they will behave in that similar fashion as they grow up and will
affect their entire life. The article’s statements make sense as the
characteristics of the parenting style are reflected through the children’s
behaviour. Where if the parent does not care, the child can do whatever he
wants and will not care either. And if parents are heavily controlling the
child will be grown to be upholding expectations of others as well.  

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