Panchayati Raj System in Jammu and Kashmir: A Study of Political Participation of Tribal (Gujjar and Bakarwal) in Poonch District.Ph.D Research Scholar Supervisor Assistant ProfessorFazal Hussain Dr.
Ishtiyaq AhmedAbstract:- rural India. In India the local self-government has been existing since lo Panchayat Raj system is the basic step of Indian democracy and backbone of ng. The origin of Panchayat Raj Institution in India started during the British period and Lord Ripon was the initiator of this system in 1882. He tried to administer local affairs through local self-government and tried to improve local interest through this system. After Independence, Government of India appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Balwant Rai Mehta in 1957 to examine the working of Community Development Programme which established in 1952 and National Extension Service in 1953.
The committee submitted its report in November 1957 and recommended three tire panchayat raj system and establishment of the scheme of democratic decentralization; which ultimately came to be known as Panchayat Raj. The scheme was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of India Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on October 2, 1959 in Nagaur District of Rajasthan state. In Jammu and Kashmir, Panchayat Raj system was introduced by Maharaja Hari Singh in 1936 by passing Jammu and Kashmir Panchayat Regulation Act 1936. In order to make Panchayat system more viable and representative.
Jammu and Kashmir Panchayat Raj Act 1989′ was passed by Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly. According to 2011 census of Jammu and Kashmir, the state of Jammu and Kashmir has total population of 12,541,302 out of which tribal population is 1,493,299. Schedule tribe occupied third largest population of the state and district Pooch have a total population of 476835 out of which percentage of tribal population is 40.12%, but still political participation among tribal is very less.This research tries to examine Panchayati Raj System of Jammu and Kashmir its function, position and composition under the (Jammu and Kashmir Panchayat Raj act 1989), and to analyze the participation of Scheduled Tribes in Panchayati Raj system of Jammu and Kashmir and highlight their political participation, issues, challenges, and causes of backwardness.Keywords:- Tribal, Gujjar and Bakarwal, Panchayati raj System, Political Participation, Poonch Jammu and Kashmir, India.INTRODUCTION:-The concept of Panchayati Raj system is an Indian origin. It is genuine and effective democratic decentralized institutions, provide ample opportunities for a large number of rural people to take genuine and effective participation in the development and democratic decision-making process and to infuse in the minds of the rural people a spirit of self-help, self-dependence and self-reliance and to obtain the experience in the art of local self-government.
Panchayati Raj institutions have been playing an important role in order to monitor these rural development programs. These institutions have been helpful in identifying real beneficiaries in order to get maximum benefits out of these schemes. A number of hurdles and constraints and deficiencies are also responsible for failure of these rural development programmes. Panchayati Raj plays an important role in Indian democracy.
India is a land of villages in which 74% population still lives in rural areas. only panchayati raj system is which promote their development and provide democratic decentralizaitin. The term Panchayati Raj is a system in which gram panchayats are basic units of administration.
It has been established in all the states of India by the acts of the state legislature to build democracy at grass-root level. This was the dream of mahatma Gandhi that ” we have need to develope our village through ( gram swaraj)” Nehru converted Gandhis dream in reality when The government of India appointed Balwant Rai Mehta Committee in January 1957 to analyze the Programme of Community Development and National Extension Service .It recommended three tire panchayat raj system (a) zila parshad at district level (b) panchayat Simitis at block level (indirect election) (c) gram panchayat at village level (direct election) the committee submitted its report in 1957 .After that the following committee were established for the analyze of panchayat raj system. 1 Ashok Mehta Committee (1977-1978) 2 G V K Rao Committee (1985) 3 L M Singhvi Committee (1986)4 Thungon Committee (1998) 5 Gadgil committee (1988) The scheme was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of India Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on October 2, 1959 in Nagaur District of Rajasthan state. Andhra was the second state to adopt the panchayat raj system whereas many state adopt two tire systems like Tamil Nadu, some adopt three tire system like Rajasthan and West Bengal adopt four tire system. The bill finally emerged as the 73rd constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 and Panchayati Raj came into existence on 24th of April 1993. The act provides a three-tier system of Panchayati Raj in India, that is, Gram Panchayat at the village level, Panchayat Samiti at the block level, and Zila Parishad at the district level.
The 11th schedule in the constitution lists 29 functional areas to be brought within the purview of the decentralized planning level, including agriculture and allied activities, irrigation, social forestry, village and small-scale industries, including food processing industries, drinking water, housing, roads, education, women and child development programs etc. The act has given a practical shape to article 40 of Part 4th of the Directive Principles of State Policy which says that, “The state shall take steps to organize village Panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government”. The Panchayati Raj institutions became a state subject under the Constitution of India. Gandhiji, the father of Indian nation realized the importance of village Panchayat as an important instrument of ruler development, promoting democracy at grass-root.
His term for such a vision was “Gram Swaraj” (village self-governance). It was our first Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru who favored the idea of village republic. He said, “India will progress only, when the people living in villages become politically conscious.
The progress of our country is bound up with the progress in our village. If our villages make progress, India will become a strong nation and nobody will be able to stop its onward march, if you flinch from your determination and get involved in mutual quarrels and petty factions, you will not be able to succeed in your mission.”Panchayati Raj system in Jammu and Kashmir:- In Jammu and Kashmir, Panchayat Raj system was introduced by Maharaja Hari Singh in 1936 by passing Jammu and Kashmir Panchayat Regulation Act 1936. In order to make Panchayat system more viable and representative, Jammu and Kashmir Panchayat Raj Act 1989′ was passed by Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly in 1989. By an amendment in 1941, the list of functions of the 1935 Regulation were widened by an Act of 1951, the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI) was adopted to be re-established. The Jammu and Kashmir Government enacted the Village Panchayati Act in 1958 by replacing the 1951 Act.
Various committees were attempted on Panchayati Raj in J&K. Finally, in April 1988 it was introduced in assembly of J&K and came into existence in March 1989 (known as J&K Panchayati Raj Act-1989) The first election under the Act of 1889 was held in 2001 after a gap of 12 years, although they could not be successful in all parts of the state due to the prevailing situation.In the intervening years, panchayat institutions in other parts of the country have evolved with the backing of the 73rd Amendment act 1993 to the Constitution of India. Recently, in 2011 panchayat election were held in Jammu and Kashmir after 23 years at all the three levels viz; village, block and district level. All Sarpanchs and Panchs were duly elected in accordance with the provision of Jammu and Kashmir Panchayat Raj act, 1989.Tribal (Gujjar and Bakarwal) political participation in Jammu and Kashmir:- In Jammu and Kashmir State there are 12 scheduled tribes namely- Balti, Shin, Changpa, Garra, Mon, Purigpa, Gujjar, Bakerwals, Gaddi, and Sippi. According to 2011 census of Jammu and Kashmir total tribal population is 1,493,299. Schedule tribe occupied third largest population of the state and district Pooch have a total population of 476835 out of which percentage of tribal population is 40.
12%, but still political participation among tribal is very less. This is due to the very vulnerable condition of Scheduled Tribes in Jammu And Kashmir State as they belong to one of the most backward section of society and are educationally and economically very poor. These tribal are mostly transhumance and always remain in transition state from one place to another in search of their pastures habitat for rearing their cattles. As the Jammu and Kashmir State is being accorded with special status (Article 370), therefore central government policies cannot be directly implemented in jammu and kashmir by state government. In this way the problems and challenges of tribals of Jammu and Kashmir, are much more as compared to rest of Indian tribes.
Literature Reviews:-1. The Ashok Mehta Committee (1978) was set up to enquire into the working of the Panchayati Raj Institutions and to suggest measures for strengthening them soon to enable centralized planning and development in order to be effective. This committee recommended three tire system . 2. Bhat AH (2016), the study discussed the various challenges faced by the state of Jammu and Kashmir before Panchayati Raj.
The study concluded that the state faces many challenges before Panchayati Raj in J&K viz; terrorist challanges, political influence, corruption, lack of motivation, inappropriate use of funds, lack of responsiveness, lack of transparency, lack of skills and man power, lack of infrastructure, and lack of proper guideline. Panchayat system neither develops nor properly works because of these challenges. These all challanges still continue in jammu and kashmir panchayati raj system. 3. Azhar Ud Din Khanday (2016), the study has tried to attempt has been made to know various dimensions of Emerging Pattern of Gujjar and Bakerwal leadership, low awareness of political participation, in State Politics of Jammu and Kashmir. The study concluded that Gujjar and Bakerwal leadership in politics is slightly increasing with the passage of time but not up to satisfactory level.
Therefore, it is the need of hour to make Gujjar and Bakerwal more conscious of the rights and responsibilities, the implications of the laws governing tribal status in society and developing and understanding about the various manifestsfor tribal politics in jammu and kashmir Providing tribal access to knowledge in different areas like social, economic and political.4 Kumar, Ashwani in his study titled “Participation of Weaker Sections in Panchayati Raj Institutions of Jammu And Kashmir” her study conclude that Weaker sections, however, have not been an integral part of this system before 73rd amendment. No any reserbe seat for tribal population in jammu and kashmir legislative Assembly. In this study, it was found that most of the SC/ST panchayat representatives didn’t mention any role of dominant castes in deciding their candidature. Only 10% SC contestants agreed that their candidature is decided by dominant castes while 5% SC and 40% ST Representatives responded that mutual consent is taken for deciding candidature.CHAPTERIZATION 1. Introduction 2.
Panchayati Raj System in India 3. Panchayati Raj System in Jammu and Kashmir on the basis (J panchayat raj act 1989) composition, function, position 4. Tribal Participation in Panchayat Raj System 5. Political participation of tribals (Gujjar and Bakarwal) in Panchayati Raj System of Poonch district. 7 Finding and conclusion.PROBLEMSIn Jammu and Kashmir Panchayati raj system election is not held on time, function and composition of Panchayati raj system is not working good, less political participation of tribal in Jammu and Kashmir Panchayati Raj System of J. state is due to the lack of education, Lack of platforms to channelize their problems and issues.
The authorities have not implemented so for the policies and programs framed by the central and the state government effectively for tribal. However, Gujjar and Bakerwal community within Jammu and Kashmir State is one of the most deprived sections of the society which continues to suffer from poverty, backwardness, illiteracy, and ignorance. The community has not progress at the desired level and the local political party members remained somewhat away from actual problem facing by the community itself.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To study the Panchayati raj system of India.2.
To study the Panchayati raj system of Jammu and Kashmir3. To study and review the composition, function and loopholes in the present Panchayat Raj System in Jammu and Kashmir state.4. To study the political Participation of Gujjar and Bakerwal in Panchayati Raj system of Poonch district5. To analyze the challenges of tribal (Gujjar and Bakarwal) in Panchayati Raj of Jammu and Kashmir state. 6.
To highlight the cause of backwardness and less political participation of tribals. 7. To make few recommendations for the further improvement of tribals.RESEARCH QUESTION:- The following questions that have emerged out of the earlier discussion have been addressed in the present study are as follows: – 1. why the Panchayati raj system of Jammu and Kashmir is not properly working?2.
How the Panchayati raj system of Jammu and Kashmir is differ from Indian Panchayati raj system?3 Is there any role of the tribal people in Panchayati Raj Institutions if yes then why they are less aware to political participation? 4 Are political leaders aware to tribal welfare policies and their responsibilities towards it? 6 En-list various factors that influence tribal Gujjar and Bakarwal participation in panchayat elections? 7 Do they face any obstacle in the way of political participation? 8 Do the tribal Gujjar and Bakarwal interested toward panchayat if no then why9 Is there any good policy for tribal which promote them economically? 10 Has the 73rd Amendment Act, 1992 encouraged tribal political participation in Panchayati raj system Jammu and Kashmir? HYPOTHESIS :- 1 Panchayati raj system of Jammu and Kashmir is not properly working2. Political participation of tribal (Gujjar and Bakarwal) in Panchayati raj of Jammu and Kashmir is low3. Tribals (Gujjar and Bakarwal) are still not aware toward political participation Panchayati Raj and faces many challenges in J.
4. Still the political participation of Poonch tribal on the bases of religion and casteism.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:-The study includes both primary and secondary data.
The secondary data is collected from research papers, magazines, books, journals, articles, J Panchayati Raj, websites, District Panchayats, etc. To collect the primary data, the study will be conducted in ten randomly selected Panchayat of Poonch districts of Jammu and Kashmir. Five Panchayat will be selected from Poonch district. All the panches of the selected Panchayats formed the respondents of the study. Porpustive method of unstructured sampling will be used This will be done to keep the study sample homogenous. A semi structured interview schedule will be prepared which will administered personally as well as telephonically. Data will be analyzed using percentages and other appropriate statistical tools.REFERENCES:- 1 Dr.
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