Site Loader

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 8.0px 0.0px; text-align: justify; font: 10.0px ‘Book Antiqua’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} span.

s1 {font-kerning: none} Aurangzeb’s policy of religious persecution roused the Sikhs who broke into a rebellion which become an important cause of the down fall of the Mughal Empire. The Sikh sect was founded by Guru Nank in the sixteenth century who believed in universal brotherhood, unity of God and spiritual liberation by means of prayer, self-restraint and good actions. Under the next three Gurus the community remained peaceful. Guru Ramdas the fourth Guru for whom Akbar had great respect was granted a piece of land at Amritsar containing a pool which was enlarged and improved and on the side of which was constructed the famous Golden Temple. The fifth Guru Arjundev proved a more dynamic and zealous organised the Sikhs into a compact community. Guru Arjandev blessed the rebellious prince Khusrav in I606 for which Jahangir ordered his execution.

This act greatly embittered the Sikhs against the Mughals and compelled the peace loving Sikhs to take up arms for their self defence under the guidance of the sixth Guru Hargovind. He declared himself to be a spiritual and temporal head of the Sikhs. He collected a small army round him and Sikh devotees were transformed into soldier saints. This brought him into clash with the Mughals. He died in I645 and was succeeded by Guru Harrai after whose death Guru Harkishan become the eight Guru. Then came Guru Teg Bahadur. Meanwhile Aurangzeb who had become the emperor began his policy of religious persecution.

Guru Teg Bahadur publically condemned Aurangzeb’s anti hindu measures. He encouraged the Brahmins of Kashmir to resist these. Aurangzeb grew suspicious of Guru’s motives and summoned him to Delhi where he was offered the choice between death and conversion to Islam. On his refusal to embrace Islam, the Guru was tortured to death in NovemberI675. At the place where he was executed now stands Gurdawara Sisganj in Delhi. The death of Guru Tag Bahadur inspired the Sikhs with the feeling of revenge against the Mughal Empire and made an open war inevitable. His son and successor Guru Gobind swore to avenge his father’s death and transformed the Sikhs into a military community, In I699 on the Baisakhi day Guru Govind Singh created the Khalsa.

A strict code of conduct was prescribed for the Khalsa. They were to put on distinct dress and were required to keep on their person five things beginning with letter ‘K’ viz Kes (long hair), Kanga (comb) , Kripan (sword) ,Kachcha (short drawers) and Kara (steel bracelet). Under him the Khalsa pursued the policy of ‘fight muslim fanaticism with Sikh fanaticism’. Aurangzeb who was at this time engaged in struggle against the Marathas in the south could not tolerate the emergence of the Sikhs as an armed community. He ordered to chase the Sikhs. They were however defeated by the Sikhs in the first battle of Anandpur in1701. In the second battle of Anandpur fought in I704 the combined armies laid siege to the fort of Anandpur which was herically defended by the Sikhs but they were forced to surrender. Guru Govind Singh escaped to the Deccan.

Two of his sons died fighting against the Mughals while the remaining two were captured by the Mughals and brought to Sirhind where they were asked to embrace Islam and on their refusal to do so were bricked alive. The Guru returned to Northern India. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 it is said that he assisted his son Bahadur Shah in his contest for the throne and subsequently processed with him to the Deccan, An afghan fanatic stabbed him to death in 1708.

Post Author: admin


I'm Dora!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out