Otherwise known as Indian corn, Maize is what led the advancement of Native American civilization and agriculture techniques. Maize allowed a population of 20 million to be fed, going across South America and Mexico. It is also responsible for transforming once nomadic societies into more civilization based cultures. It could arguably have been responsible for the development of advanced civilizations such as the Aztec and Inca culture. Following the ‘discovery’ of America in 1492, the Columbian Exchange is parallel to the exchange of crops, livestock, and products following 1492. Commodities such as tomatoes, horses, pigs, corn, and precious metals drastically changed European diet, way of life for Natives, and prompted control of the ‘New World’ to acquire such resources. The introduction of tomatoes and potatoes in the ‘Old World’ changed European cuisine and agricultural techniques, while the domestication of horses in the ‘New Word’ influenced some Native American lifestyles from settlers to nomadic. The Columbian Exchange also cultivated the spread of cultures, disease, fascination of the ‘New World’, and oversea travel. Although both were groups of settlers from Europe, Puritans were typically of the upper-middle class who believed in the Church of England and were still loyal to England, while Pilgrims typically consisted of lower class individuals seeking religious freedom and economic opportunities. The Pilgrims arrived before the Puritans at around the early 1620s, while Puritans arrived later from 1629-1630. Majority of the Puritans were educated, many from Oxford or Cambridge, later coming to form Harvard University, while many Pilgrims had little education. They later came together to unify their colonies in 1689.The Virginia House of Burgesses represented a mini house of parliament, authorized by the the London Company in 1619 within British American colonies. It was the embodiment of a self runned government, which was revoked by James I who thought this grouping was too dangerous. However, Virginia became a royal colony. As many from Europe were seeking new life in the American colonies, in exchange for transatlantic passage, migrants would dedicate three to seven years of service to their employer. They were provided food, shelter, and a form of payment when their service has completed. Indentured servants were a result out of the desperate need for labor force. However, this form of unfiltered labor were the precursors to slavery in the American colonies, as well as accustoming the Chesapeake colonies to unfree labor. Many indentured servants were also subjected to harassment from their masters. The Navigation Acts was a mercantilist system going from the years 1651-1673 that exploited colonial resources for British gains. This prompted certain crops required to be produced, a quota needed to be met by British trading standards, and limited colonial competition that could beat British markets. This was enacted to tighten the control England had over its colonies, allowing only British ships to export colonial goods. Jonathan Edwards; George Whitefield: The Great Awakening was a religious revival that occured in the mid to late 18th century. This movement followed the Enlightenment movement, in which secular basis of philosophy, science, and education were promoted, causing a decline in religious influence. It is from the Great Awakening in which Protestant Christianity became the predominant religion in America. Religion was catered in a much more personalized direction, causing many to convert and form denominations. Salutary neglect refers to the lack regulation the Mother Country enforced, allowing to colonies developing own legislation and laws, but ultimately allowing the colonies to gain a sense of freedom (could be equivalent to a degree of abandonment). Salutary Rigor refers to the overpowered control the Mother Country has over the colonies, leading to colonies feeling oppressed and restricted in their right of choice. Salutary neglect lasted from the 1600s to the 1700s, enacted to allow Britain to devote more focus in European policies. With Salutary Rigor, enforced to allow Britain to recover from war debt, the colonies began to revolt against sudden control Britain followed upon, leading to the American Revolution. Following the French and Indian War, land across Canada, Ohio, and the Mississippi was given to the British, in which American colonists hoped that they could expand westward into this new territory. This was to prevent further conflict with the Natives, however angered many colonists who purchased land in this new territory that is now of void. However, colonists attempted to settle in this new territory, causing conflict with British forces and the Natives living there. Thomas Paine was an England-born political philosopher who was known for his writing of ‘Common Sense’ (published in 1776). He immigrated to Philadelphia in 1774, who became friends with many wanting to invoke political change. He published his pamphlet ‘Common Sense’ to advocate American Independence. One of his significant points made were on the need of the American Revolution, and what that would mean for the rest of the world. It called to action to establish America as a place of equality of all mankind. With 150,000 copies sold, Paine aimed to reach the common audience with simple statements, leading to powerful effect as ‘Common Sense’ pushed American patriotism towards the American Revolution. The Declaration of Independence was verified on July 4, 1776 by Congress to state the colonies’ freedom from Britain and declare them free of their rule. The document also stated Enlightenment ideals that stated the rights given to man. The declaration was drafted by Thomas Jefferson, but many such as a Franklin and ADams contributed to the formation of the document. Loyalists consisted 20% of the colonies’ population, and were often richer, conservative, and older. They were often officers of the king and officials of the crown, and many were followers of the Anglican Church. Patriots consisted majority of the colonies’ population, comprised of younger and poorer settlers. The persecution of Loyalists became more evident after the formalization of the Declaration of the Independence. Crafted in 1781, the Articles of Confederation was adopted by the Second Continental Congress. Although it is the nation’s first constitution, it granted heavy control to the states with limited power to the federal government, causing confusion and chaos. This however was essential in unifying the United States towards independence and securing a future of democracy for the colonies. The Northwest Ordinance regulated the terms and conditions for newly admitted states. This made new states unable to have slavery, but allowed voters to establish a slave institution. This provided groundwork for the expansive northwest territory. However, as always conflict always followed. Whether or not a territory should be admitted was up for debate. John Locke: Also known as the Age of Reason, the Enlightenment is an 18th century movement in Western philosophy, wanting change for the depressive human state and improved living conditions. It challenged customs, morals, and set institutions. This prompted developments in science, education, arts, and philosophy. The idea centered around having a strong and centralized government, This was fueled by Shays Rebellion, as Federalism was a response to economic and civil injustice. From John Adams, Federalism reached its peak but from his decline Federalism reached an end to its substantial influence. The Bill of Rights consisted of the first Ten Constitutional Amendments. This guaranteed rights to all American citizens regardless of circumstance, and was enacted by Anti-Federalists fearing government intrusions on personal liberties. The US Constitution established national government and fundamental laws in which the country abides by, creating groundwork for governmental branches, procedures on running a nation, and responsibilities the nation’s ruler should uphold. The American Revolution was an event that took place in between 1765 and 1783, where the 13 colonies declared war against Britain. Invoked by Salutary Rigor, the American Revolution is a reaction from the colonies of Britain’s tight control. It is when too many resources were used and the effort but in was substantial where the colonies declared independence from Britain. Presented in 1796, George Washington issued a document declaring his retirement from office. His address related to domestics issues rather than international affairs, stressing the importance of keeping away from permanent alliances, and keeping bitterness between parties limited or nonexistent. Linked to Republican ideals, the role of women was elevated as the caretaker of the future generation. It made being a mother and a carer of America’s future children a highly important role in keeping America’s conscience and morals clean. Republican motherhood was also an idea that prompted women to spend more time to their families, dedicating their time in creating a prosperous household. They are a collection of essays that is meant to how a new government should work. It is written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, which purpose was to argue why a strong centralized government is needed for a nation to be most effective. This was meant to ratify the constitution to the New York state legislature. The Bill of Rights consist of the First Ten Amendments, meaning to guarantee the rights of all citizens. It also ensured the protection of the five basic liberties: freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition. This is significant as it ensured a nation with rights that had not occured prior to such a scale, securing the next road of the colonies to have the basic freedoms. As many farmers in Pennsylvania were upset by Hamilton’s tax on whiskey, a riot occured which led to the deaths of federal officers. The tax was enacted in order to pay off debts from the Revolutionary War. This event was significant as it demonstrated the swiftness in government response, also proving that the Federal Government has a right to collect taxes. Presented in 1796, George Washington issued a document declaring his retirement from office. His address related to domestics issues rather than international affairs, stressing the importance of keeping away from permanent alliances, and keeping bitterness between parties limited or nonexistent. They are four acts passed in 1798 by Federalist Congress that were signed by President Adams. The four acts are the Naturalization Act, the Alien Act, the Alien Enemy Act, and the Sedition Act. The Naturalization Act increased citizen waiting time from 5 to 14 years, the Alien Act allowed the president to arrest and deport aliens, the Alien Enemy Act allowed war enemy citizens in the US to be deported, and the Sedition Act made it illegal to publish negative statements on federal officials. They are political statements declaring that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. Both Resolutions argued that states had the right to declare any acts of Congress that are not upheld by the Constitution to be unconstitutional. The Resolutions were written anonymously by James and Madison.