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Operation Jock Scott and Trial, 1952-1954 On 3 October 1952 Mau Mau militants stabbed a European woman to death in Thika; the first European fatality. On October 9 Mau Mau militants assassinated Senior Chief Waruhiu, a Kenyan pro-British government official. The assassination of Waruhiu and increased Mau Mau aggression pushed a State of Emergency to be declared on 20 October 1952. Immediately after the declaration of the State of Emergency, the British launched covert Operation Jock Scott. Operation Jock Scott detained the Kapenguria Six, Kenya’s six most prominent KAU leaders and influential nationalists — Bildad Kaggia, Kung’u Karumba, Jomo Kenyatta, Fred Kubai, Paul Ngei, and Achieng’ Oneko. 21 October 1952, the day after Operation Jock Scott (which detained Kenyatta), Chief Nderi (who was a Kenyan British loyalist) was dismembered by Mau Mau members. Through the months after Operation Jock Scott, British tactics were “violent and random”, alienating Kikuyu and driving them to join the Mau Mau. Thousands of Mau Mau sympathisers fled from urban areas to the surrounding forests, establishing military structure. Gruesome murders (beheadings, dismemberment, etc) of British officials and Kenyan civilians by Mau Mau occurred on a weekly basis after Operation Jock Scott. March 1953, Lari Massacre — Mau Mau militants mutilated, raped, dismembered upwards of 150 Kikuyu men, women and children (non-Mau Mau sympathisers), throwing people into burning huts. Detained in Kapenguria prison, the trial lasted five months (verdict issued in April 1953), with little evidence against Kenyatta. Kenyatta was sentenced to seven years hard labor at the newly built Lokitaung prison. British in Operation Anvil of 1954 — targeted Nairobi, detaining and interrogating entire groups of Kenyan men suspected of being Mau Mau. Imprisonment and Split of the KAU, 1954-1960 Kenyatta was tasked to cook rations for fellow inmates. In 1954 Waruhiu Itote, also known as General China, a major Mau Mau commander, was imprisoned at Lokitaung, befriending and taking English lessons from Kenyatta. By 1955 Mau Mau membership consisted of Kikuyu as well as sizable populations of Luo, and other Bantu and Nilotic tribes. Operation Anvil and other military tactics had established a “pipeline” which interrogated and persuaded detained Mau Mau militants to work for the British, establishing a covert network of sub-network Kenyan colonialists. On 21 October 1956 Mau Mau leader Dedan Kimathi was captured by the British, effectively ending the Mau Mau Uprising. By 1957, the KAU had split in the Lokitaung prison into the Kenyan African National Union (KANU, with Kenyatta and Itote, mostly Kikuyu and Luo), and the Kenyan African Democratic Union (KADU, built up by prisoners of smaller tribes). Members of KADU had attempted to stab Kenyatta over the last two years. In 1958, at a legislative council hearing, Luo leader and chieftain Jaramogi Oginga Odinga asserted that Kenyatta was only a “political leader”, demanding his release. Uhuru (Freedom), 1961-1963 Release of Kenyatta was due to the boycotting of Kenyan Government by the KANU for Kenyatta’s freedom. KANU also nominated Kenyatta as president. In April 1959, he was released accepted the presidency of the party offered by the KANU, as he did not want to back either party, but advocated for unity. When released, crowds of Mau Mau/Kenyans, came to congratulate him, with his imprisonment being revered among Kikuyu, Luo, and other tribes as the factor that accomplished the Mau Mau Uprising independence effort. Was bestowed the title Mzee, which means/is given to a respected elder. Effectively was regarded as the Father of Independent Kenya. In 1963, full independence was granted to Kenya, and Kenyatta elected its leader.

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