One example of Scientific Management, classic case of Ford, the great achievement today of Ford motor company is inseparable from the scientific management of Henry Ford, the founder of ford motor company. In 1910, ford began an experiment in factory automation at a new factory in highland park. He led a group of efficient experts to review every link on the assembly line and experiment with methods to improve productivity. And he is the most important breakthrough is using gantt charts to plan control. Created the world’s first automobile assembly line, realized the mechanization of big industrial, greatly improved the labor productivity, the high efficiency, low cost, high wages and highly profitable situation. In 1914, ford announced an eight-hour salary of $5 (instead of a nine-hour, $2.34 wage) that was twice as much as the normal salary of a skilled worker at the time. Ford thought: this way, the workers who make cars can be the owners of cars. As news of the $5 working day was announced, tens of thousands of people were flocking to ford’s highland park manufacturing plant to apply for a job regardless of the cold, bone-chilling weather. Henry Ford started a new era, his unique auto production line, and as the management idea of public service on the one hand, brought their profits, on the other hand has also changed the American consumption concept, from then on, the United States into the kingdom of the car.
As said or narrated above, these are some of my insights and opinions. But as Drucker said, the essence of management lies not in knowledge, but in practice; the validity of verification management is not the logic, but the result. More, it is the seamless connection between the framework and the enterprise through day to day deliberate practice and minor improvements.
In fact, it includes supervision, comparison and correction. Specifically, that is to say, whether the actual implementation of the monitoring is deviated from the plan (supervision) and the specific deviation (comparison). Then, the organization and execution will be brought back to the right track.
Personally, I think this is the most technical part of management, and it is the core competitiveness of enterprise management. In the management of a team, started is not independent of the management authority (instruction), and then with the team members continue to mature, in the way of cooperation and common development to guide him out of the team, so the choice of how to achieve the goal (cooperation); and then allow team members to set their own goals, and team management will play a supporting role (coach); finally, direct negotiation goals, fully delegated to the team members.
l Assigning subordinates and empowerment to the person in charge.
l Assignment of categories and heads for tasks.
l Assign specific tasks for individuals.
l Assignment of tasks for the team.
It can be understood as how to manage human resources on the premise that internal customers (employees) and external customers (consumers) are satisfied with the implementation of the plan, including:
l How much (how much is the cost, budget?)
l How many (to what extent do you want to do?)
l How (how?)
l Which (what else do you have in addition to doing that?)
l Why (why?)
l Who (who is in charge, who is involved?)
l Where (where to do it)
l When (when the plan is completed)
l What (what do you want to make)
Before discussing the impact of management theory on the case of display. Let me first come to a brief summary of what is management. In a word, management is divided into several main parts: plan, organization, leadership and control.
Through this book, The Principles of Scientific Management, it expounds several main contents: (1) through Scientific observation, recording and analysis, is committed to “action research”, to explore The best way to improve labor productivity, to develop a reasonable days work. (2)Select and train first-rate workers. A first-rate worker is a worker who is fit for a job and is willing to work hard. (3)To enable workers to master standardized operation methods, use standardized tools, machinery and materials to operate in a standardized work environment. (4)Incentive workers are encouraged to work hard with a stimulating wage system. It mainly through the formulation reasonable work quota, implements the piecework system difference: the normal payment to complete the task, did not reach the standard low wages, the excessive high reward, according to the basic measures such as performance measure. (5)Both workers and employers should have a “spiritual revolution”. The two sides are working together to increase labor productivity and make the pie bigger, even without changing the proportion of the distribution. The two sides are working together to increase labor productivity. (6)To separate the functional and executive functions of the project, replace the empirical work method with scientific work methods. (7)The system is carried out by the functional industry. A foreman is responsible for the functional management of the one hand, refining the production process management. (8)The exception principle is implemented in the management control. That is, the authority of the daily affairs authority is responsible. The administrator reserves the right of disposal only to the exception or the important matters.
To the scientific management of Taylor made such a definition, he said: “the combination of various kinds of factors, not the individual elements constitute the scientific management, it can be summarized as follows:1. Science, Not Rule of Thumb 2. Harmony, Not Discord 3. Mental Revolution 4. Cooperation, Not Individualism 5. Development of each and every person to his or her greatest efficiency and prosperity. ” This definition illustrates the true connotation of scientific management and reflects Taylor’s scientific management thought.
2 The main idea of Scientific Management
The founder of Scientific Management is Frederick Winslow Taylor. Taylor’s scientific management is based on traditional experience management and raises labor productivity in the center of the problem. And the Scientific Management theory was proposed in his main book, principles of scientific management (1911).
Scientific Management is the management theory of analysis and comprehensive workflow. Its main aim is to improve economic efficiency, especially Labour productivity.
1 Introductions of Scientific Management
The development process of organization theory shows that the change of management thought and research methods, research experiences from a focus on “things” to “man” of the research, development and research to the people and things both in methodology to empirical research from normative research. The formation and development of organization theory is the result of human understanding of organization and its activities, so that people can consciously apply this theory to effectively manage organizations to adapt themselves to organizational activities. The inadequacy of organizational theory lies in the lack of a unified conceptual framework and core content. Some scholars have different opinions about whether organizational theory is a subject or not.
From the perspective of theoretical development, in the early twentieth Century, organizational theory generally went through three stages: traditional organization theory, behavioral science organization theory and system management theory. The traditional organizational theory was prevalent in the 10~30 years of twentieth Century. It focuses on the analysis of the organization structure and general principles of organization and management. The research contents mainly involve organization’s goals, division of labor, coordination, power relations, responsibilities, organization efficiency, authorization, management scope and level, centralization and decentralization. Representative: put forward the bureaucracy theory M. Weber, put forward the general management theory H. Farrell, put forward the scientific management theory F.W. Taylor. Although Taylor’s scientific management is mainly applicable to enterprise organization, its organizational management thought profoundly affects the research of administrative organization management and administrative theory. In addition, the American scholar L. Urwick and spread the traditional organization and comprehensive theory views and ideas, expand the influence of the traditional organization theory.
Organizational theory refers to the theory that human affairs are arranged in a certain form in the activities of social organization. Organization is composed of more than two people, in order to achieve common goals, in a certain form to be compiled. With the increasing complexity of social division of labor, the organization activities of human society are becoming more and more diverse, such as administrative organizations, business and business organizations, cultural and educational organizations.
1 Introductions of organizational theory
In this article, I will explain the organizational theory and its three stages of development: modernist, symbolic interpretive and postmodern. After that, I will discuss and solve two questions: First, how to understand the organization, and second, the purpose of organizing the theory. Finally, discuss the relevance of this theory and its impact on today.