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One way the world has
changed since 9/11 is that it has increased violence in world politics. America
has attacked Afghanistan to get rid of the Taliban’s plus their training camps,
with their own agenda to end terrorists but they ended more than that. Their
aim was to find Osama Bin Laden as Afghanistan were accused of hiding him. The
U.S. was supported by many countries
including the UK (BBC News, 2017). Between 10,960 and 49,600 (Dummies, 2017) people
have been involved, more people were injured than killed, but the American
troops left thousands homeless. The total death toll since 2001-2016 has been
111,442 (CNN, 2017). There were more
than 10,000 troops (Begins, 2017) deployed in Afghanistan. It started with a
bombing attack on the capital of Afghanistan, Kabul and by mid-December, the
city was destroyed. Osama Bin Laden had fled to Pakistan where it was hard for
American troops to get into due to political reasons. Pakistan was the safe
haven for the Taliban’s across the Pak-Afghan border. The Afghanistan-American
war is the longest war in history now leading onto 17 years, there are 8,400
troops still in Afghanistan this year (CNN, 2017). The reason why the war is
still ongoing is that America is afraid if they leave space for them, ISIS or
a new group could plan a plot against America like 9/11.


The second major attack
was on Iraq, America threatened to attack if they didn’t abandon their nuclear
weapon programmes (Jenkins, 2011:15). It first started with an air campaign,
then by a ground invasion that was led by U.S. forces. Al-Qaeda wanted Saddam Hussein gone and America
did their work for them unintentionally. America wanted to remove Saddam
Hussein from power as he threatened
America in various ways (Quoracom, 2017). He was captured by U.S. forces in
December 2003 and executed by Iraqis in 2006. Between 392,979 and 942,636 (Dummies,
2017) Iraqi civilians and combatants were
injured/killed in the process. The invasion was carried out to promote change, in
their sense to have peace in an Islamic extremist-free world. However, it
wasn’t exactly a win for America, they lost approximately 4400+ soldiers (Ricks
et al., 2017). Iran gained an ally with the new Iraq once Saddam was hanged,
their relationship was the winner of the war. The Iraq war became a gateway for
IS to exist and once they came into existence, the special air service was sent
to the outskirts of Baghdad, Iraq to attack jihadists. Later, they organized into Al-Qaeda and then Islamic State
and since 2013, ISIS (BBC News, 2017).

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America’s ground
invasions on countries like Iraq have
destabilized not only the region but also the Middle East. No one can accuse
America to say this was one of their foreign policy goals as there’s no proof, however, if they did then it was unintentional.
A big reason why the Middle East is destabilized is because of the decline of American foreign policy (Quoracom, 2017). Rather than bringing freedom and peace
to Iraq, America brought more trouble. America’s biggest failure when it comes
to foreign policy was that the Iraq war unintentionally let things go out of control, with this the rise of Islamic State
also came. Americas main goal post 9/11 regarding foreign policies in
Afghanistan has been to make sure that the country doesn’t become a safe haven
for terrorist groups (Felbab-Brown, 2017). Another example of America’s foreign
policy in the Middle East is in Syria. An article of Newsweek (18 November
2017) said:

“Assad previously said he
would welcome U.S. troops in Syria to fight ISIS—under the condition that they
coordinated their campaign with his ally, Russia”.

America wants Assad removed from power. From Russia’s
end, they have said that their support for Assad is only conditional (Graham-Harrison,
2017). Russia has been backing Assad’s regime for a while and it started from
the cold war days (BBC News, 2017). After this, countries tore a policy change.
The main goal of American foreign policy is:

“Preserving the national
security of the United States”. (, 2017)

President Trump has been
attempting to achieve that goal. Earlier this year he signed an order, which
states that all refugee admissions must be stopped, he temporarily banned seven
Muslim countries. If anyone does arrive from any of the countries they face a
90-day visa suspension (BBC News, 2017). On 5th December 2017, the BBC said:

“The US Supreme Court has
ruled President Donald Trump’s travel ban on six mainly Muslim countries can go
into full effect, pending legal challenges”.

He said that he was doing
this for national security for his own country and gave examples of the
terrorist attacks that have happened earlier this year in Paris and London. The
countries affected are Chad, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Syria, and Yemen. The BBC also stated that:

“Federal judges have
cited Mr. Trump’s campaign description of
his policy as a “Muslim ban” and his call for “a total and
complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States””.

In relation to foreign
policies, the goals the country has set e.g. working with allies to solve
international problems mainly revolves around co-operation from other nations
(, 2017). America’s foreign policy has influenced other countries
such as the UK and France. In the UK, the coming of British Jihadists is
evolving an example being Salman Abedi who was responsible for the Manchester
bombing (BBC News, 2017). In October 2001, Bush launched ‘operation enduring
freedom’ with allies such as France, Germany and the UK to punish those
responsible for 9/11 (E-International Relations, 2017).  Maybe because of this, these British
Jihadists or attacks in France are happening e.g. Paris attacks (2015) and
Germany e.g. the Berlin attack in 2016. Not only Europe but it created power
vacuums in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, and
Libya. The power vacuums allowed the terrorists to move in and do their work. 

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