OCEAN ANDCOASTAL SEDIMENT POLLUTIONABSTACTThe pollution inthe marine or ocean sediments is an irreversible course. This paper reviews the overall effects that causes pollution. Themain reasons that causes the risk impact on marine life , its food chain andthe ecosystem are due to the dumping of plasticwastes, oil spillage , heavy metal interaction, dredging etc . A case study on …………………is also discussed in this paper. The US legislation has taken many acts againstthe ocean pollution. Some of the policies are also noted here. Keywords:Micro plastics, sediment pollution, oil spillage, legislation1. INTRODUCTIONAsper an article published in “The Hindu “newspaperon 13 February 2015, it was stated that the total amount of plastic wastedumped worldwide are nearly eight million tons.
China is standing in the 1stposition with 8.82 annually whereas India is ranked 12th with 0.6tons annually. As per the survey the total amount of waste generated will bedoubled the number calculated by 2010.Evenif we believe that ” The solution ofpollution is dilution” , the recent studies shows a dramatic degradation ofshore lines for the past three centuries due to the discharge from industriesas well as the runoff from the agricultural lands . Due to the increase in thecoastal cities, the pollution has increased rapidly.
Initiallythe dumping was started in rivers and lakes. The ocean dumping was difficultdue to the distance and hardness in transporting the waste. But the waste fromthe ships were directly dumped in the mid of the sea. Over the last 150 years,all type of lavishes were dumped into the ocean such as military waste,radioactive wastes, industrial wastes, etc.
These were dumped through pipelines, rivers, gas explorations, offshore mining and became the ultimatedumping yards for the people. Fig1: plastic waste dumped in Kochi(Source:http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/india) 2. VARIOUSFORMS OF POLLUTIONPollutionis the prolusion of foreign contaminants in the ecosystem. The most commonpollutants that enters the ocean are oil, sewage, plastics, pesticides,chemical fertilizers, herbicides and other solid wastes. The pollutants areeither consumed by the marine animals eventually end up in humans where asother pollutants causes sediment pollution. The nitrogen rich fertilizerscaused pollution in ground water and are finally deposited at bays and deltas.
There causes enormous growth of algae and take up all the oxygen from content.Thus leaving the water unfit for the marine growth. There are nearly 400 placesworldwide which are prone to these kind of pollution. The solid wastes areoften mistaken as food by the marine animals causing fatal effects. 2.1.
PLASTIC DUMPINGTheproduction, use and improper disposal of plastic has raised the impact on theocean pollution. From 1950’s the use has been rapid and by the end of 2010, thedumping of plastic was nearly 4.8-12.7 million tons in the ocean.
This hascaused a negative impact on marine animals and their ecosystem, as well as inagriculture, tourism, navigation etc. The initial research were done on microplastics. 2.2.OIL SPILLAGEThechemical pollution due to the oil extraction and spillage at various placescauses an high health risk on marine ecosystem. Many oil industries shows lesscare while extracting the hydro- carbon petroleum products. The highconcentration of lead in the blood is the main cause of this kind of pollution.At the downstream of the river, a high concentration of petroleum products werenoticed.
Thus as it reaches the main source like oceans, the effect will beeven worse. The marine life will be entirely destroyed.2.3.HEAVY METALS Manyresearchers, studied about the effect of heavy metal on ground water, surfacewater, sediments etc.
The water bodies like rivers and lakes are contaminatedwith heavy metals due to the industrial waste dumping. These water bodies endup meeting the ocean water and its sediments causing high degree of pollution. Theheavy metals from the municipal sewage, agricultural residues, fertilizers etc.will penetrate into the sediment causing a detrimental effect on the bioticlife of water.
A tremendous effect on food chain is also occurred due to this. 2.4.SOLID WASTE DISPOSALThedischarge of semisolid/ bio solid from the sewage plant is another source ofpollution.
These are also known as sludge disposal. These are often disposed inthe mid of the sea. But now the US government has prohibited this act by introducingproper legislation but other countries are still practicing this method. 3. USLEGISLATION1. TheNational Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 19692.
TheOcean Dumping Act (ODA) in 19723. TheFederal Water Pollution Control Act ( Clean Water Act CWA) in 19724. LondonConvection (LC- 1972) and came in 1975 combining 8 nations for dumping waste atthe sea.
5. UNConvection on the Law of the Sea( UNCLOS) in 1982 4. CASESTUDY 5. CONCLUSIONTonsof pollutants are dumped into the sea worldwide. The various types of pollutantsthat degrade the oceanic sediments are solid waste , plastic waste, heavymetals, oil spills, sludge, industrial waste etc. To prevent the destruction ofthe sediments, the government should be aware of all the materials that aredumped into the sea.
The legislations are at national as well as internationallevels. Proper monitoring and enforcement of the rules and regulations shouldbe done. REFERNCES 1. Richards,Frederick Forrest III (1991) “Ocean Dumping: An International and DomesticPerspective;” Journal of Legislation”,Vol. 17: Issue 2, Article 72. Antoni Rosell-Melé et al, ” Oil pollutionin soils and sediments from the Northern Peruvian Amazon ” , Science of the Total Environment, 610–611 (2018)1010–10193. JoanFabres et al” Marine plastic pollution as a planetaryboundary threat – The drifting piece in the sustainability puzzle”, ” Marine policy “, 7 December 20174. Yuxin Ma, Crispin J.
Halsall etal ” Polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons in ocean sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean, EnvironmentalPollution , 227 (2017) 498- 5045. WenluZhao, Jun Wang, Baseline of Pollution of Heavy Metals and Physico-chemical Parametersin Surface Sediments from Quanzhou Bay, China, in 2006-2007, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 12 ( 2012 ) 421 – 4316. Dipak Paul , “Research on heavy metalpollution of river Ganga: A review”, Annals of Agrarian Science, 15 (2017) 278- 2867. Richards, Frederick Forrest III (1991)”Ocean Dumping: An International and Domestic Perspective” Journalof Legislation: Vol. 17: Iss. 2, Article 7.8. http://www.