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Occupationalhealth is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical,mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations – total health ofall at work            Due to the many tragedies occurred in thepast.. Countries should have regulations to preserve the health of workers ashuman right and to ensure the productivity of their workers thereby improvingtheir economy.

        Occupational health among other disciplinesis multi-sectored and it’s mainly addressed by the ministry of health and laboroffice in Sudan.      The role of the ministry of health as taken from the Occupational Health Law of Khartoum State 2011 is highlighted as the following:-          TheDirectorate shall develop policies, strategies, systems, general guidelines andtechnical standards necessary to ensure the health of workers and protect themfrom occupational diseases and injuries in establishments with a professionalhealth impact according to scientific references.         In addition to monitoring and controlingenvironmental risks and ensure that the work environment of the facility withthe professional health impact conforms to the health and environmentalstandards and specifications specified by the Ministry.

     – Provision of advisory services in relationto the health of personnel in all professions and in relation to the hazards ofthe working environment in accordance with regulations and laws.-  Consider complaints by individuals and groupsregarding occupational health.-  Preparation of field and laboratory researchand studies of various industrial processes that is likely to cause healthhazards to workers. –  Conducting the necessary medical andlaboratory examinations on the workers in the facilities to ensure that theworking conditions are appropriate.-  Sampling of materials used or traded inindustrial and agricultural processes or any other processes that may have adetrimental effect on the health of the workers or the working environment, forthe purpose of analyzing them and identifying the effects resulting from theiruse and circulation and informing the establishment there of to take thenecessary measures in this regard. .-  Theuse of photocopying and other equipment for the performance of its work. – Toreview the results of the technical and administrative reports received by theorganization about the types of accidents and their causes, and to examine thequantities of stocks of hazardous materials and how to store them.

In additionto contingency plan and risk analysis review.      There are occupational health groups in thelocalities that shall have the following functions:(A) Implementing the environmental healthsurvey of the establishments and conducting various measurements in order toimprove the health work environment within the facility.(B) Conduct a periodic medical examination ofworkers in establishments with the professional health impact targeted todetect occupational diseases in their first stages, treat them and remove theircauses.(C) An extension inspection procedure to ensurethat the working environment conforms to established standards and staffawareness(D) Periodic and periodic medical disclosurereports(E) Follow up the implementation of theregulations issued by law.

 (F) Conducta periodic medical examination of workers in establishments with theprofessional health impact targeted to detect occupational diseases in theirfirst stages, treat them and remove their causes. Medical examination:         Primarymedical examination should be carried out by the owner to upon appointment inorder to bring the worker into work which is compatible with his physical,mental and psychological health. And periodic medical examination must beperformed regularly to maintain workers health fitness and discoveroccupational diseases early.Also medical examination at the end of serviceshould be done.

All this must be done by occupational health teams and themedical doctors. And the owner should pay fully for the serviceThe above data should be kept in the healthrecord of employees and occupational accident register also.         Securing the healthy environment of the establishment by  prevention from noise and vibration, lighting,the dust, radiation harmful and dangerous, atmospheric pressure changes, staticand mobile electricity, risk of explosion.           The establishment shall undertake to prevent the risks of physicaland muscular stress arising from collisions between the body of the worker anda solid body. And to prevent the biologic risks by taking measures to protectworkers from the risk of infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites andother biological hazards when the nature of the work exposed the workers to theconditions of infection. Also providing the means of protection againstchemical hazards resulting from dealing with solid, liquid and gaseouschemicals. Prevention of negative risks such as non availability such as meansof rescue, ambulance, cleaning, arrangement and organization in theestablishment.

        The Minister shall issue a statementspecifying the limits of safety, conditions and precautions necessary toprevent the risks.        Firerisk prevention according to the nature of the activity carried out by theestablishment and the physical and chemical properties of the materials used.The workers must be trained in fire fighting and fire fighting equipments.Assessment of risks and disasters in thefacility-         obtaining a certificate of approval prior tothe establishment or building extension, and following the sanitary andmachines standards and other regulations.-         Registration of facilities-         Inspection by the Director of OccupationalHealthOccupational Health Committee:       The administration may obligate theestablishment of the activity which may cause any danger to the workers toestablish a health committee representing the employers and workers. The healthcommittee operates according to the directions issued by the department.Terms of reference of the Health Committee:             At the enterprise level shall beresponsible for drawing up and coordinating the general policy of occupationalhealth and protecting the workers from any danger that may arise from the work,considering the causes of accidents and accidents and establishing precautionsto prevent recurrence.

These committees work to reach the highest level ofphysical, mental and psychological health for workers. Also the Minister shallissue the regulation of the Committee. The functions of the Committee are: (A)Providing management with technical advice to upgrade and improve performance(B) Follow-up of enforcement of occupationalhealth and safety plans and programs.(C) Coordinate with competent bodies andrelevant bodies to promote and develop occupational health plans and programs.(D) Study and prepare periodic reports onoccupational health.(E) Seek physical and political support foroccupational health programs.Preventive measures:- Protection from radiation:  Without prejudice to the provisions of anylaw regulating ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, the owner of each facilityshall protect workers from exposure to radiation risk and obtaining acertificate indicating that the radiation is within the permissible limits.

– Protection from vapors and gases:  Necessary measures should be taken to protectthe workers when there is a potential for exposure to polluting or harmfulgases- The owner of each facility shall take firstaid and health services: (1) Providingfirst aid service and treatment of injuries and emergencies within the facilityand facilitate access of injured to health institutions.(2) If the number of workers in any facilityless than 50 workers, the company is committed to provide a first aid box andcadre trained on first aid. (3) Ifthe number of workers with any establishment of fifty workers and even 100, theinstitution is committed to use a qualified nurse or more for nursing andambulance work with every rosy work.

(4) If more than 100 workers exceed the numberof workers, the company is obliged to provide a treatment unit using aqualified doctor.(5) Without prejudice to the foregoing inclauses (3.2.1), the Corporation may provide health insurance services to theemployees.(6) The owner of each plant or plant mustvaccinate his workers against infectious and epidemic diseases according to thedirectives of the Ministry.(7) The owner of each facility must ensure thatall workers in the places of industry, cooking and eating food and drinkswithin the establishment have the health certificates that indicate theirabsence from epidemic and infectious diseases. – Means of prevention by establishment is as thefollowing:(A) Informing the worker prior to theemployment of the hazards of his profession and obliging him to use theprescribed means of prevention with the provision of appropriate personalprotective equipment and training for its use.(B) The establishment may not incur anyexpenses or deduct from wages for the provision of the necessary personalprotective measures.

– Means of protection by the worker is as thefollowing:a. To use the means of prevention andundertakes to take care of the possession of them and the implementation ofinstructions issued to maintain the health and prevention of work accidents.B. Shall not commit any act intended to preventthe implementation of instructions or abuse of the means set for the protectionand safety of workers engaged with him or change them or cause damage or damageto them without prejudice to the provisions of any other law in this regard.- Requirements for work in hazardous andharmful industries: The regulations shall regulate the conditions of work inhazardous industries and harmful to the health of workers in health-carefacilities.- Miscellaneous provisionsViolations and penalties35.Without prejudice to any heavier penalty provided for in any other law, anyperson who contravenes or refrains from implementing any of the provisions ofthis law or the regulations, orders or rules issued under it shall be punishedupon conviction of a fine not less than one thousand pounds and not exceedingten thousand pounds or imprisonment Or both. (1)  The roleof labor office as indicated in regulations of 1997:              all thefactories should be registered shall be provided with a certificate ofregistration.

And the register should be kept which include all the data itdeems necessary for each factory. Then the establishment of an industry or itsextension shall be subject to an authorization of the competent authority whichmay close any industry or its extension operating without the saidauthorization this is applied to any transformation of the existing buildingsinto factories for assembling purposes or the addition of new machinery.The following conditions are to obtain theauthorization:-  Theissuance of an authorization to install or modify a factory shall be subject tothe determination by the competent authority that the said factory fulfills thenecessary conditions to exist and operate.

– The Minister shall issue an order to bepublished in the Official Gazette specifying the general conditions to befulfilled by each factory.-  Inobservance of the provisions of sub-paragraph 2, the competent Minister shallspecify the conditions to be fulfilled by every industry in the District.- Inspection, notification of accidents and theclosure of industriesThe competence of industrial safety inspectors (1) Theindustrial safety inspector shall have the authority to enter a workplaceduring working hours during the day or at night to perform his duties ofinspection or to verify accidents or examine machinery and materials or takesamples of them and to examine any information which he deems necessary.(2) The owner of a factory or his deputy orrepresentative shall submit to the industrial safety inspector all therequested information and data.

  The Industrial Safety Committee: (1) Inevery factory employing 500 workers or more, an Industrial Safety Committeeshall be established and composed of the manager as a president, the heads ofthe production divisions, and two representatives of the unions as members ,and the Industrial Safety Officer as a reporter.(2) The Industrial Safety Committee shall be incharge of drawing up the policy for industrial safety in the factory and thesupervision of its application. The Committee shall notify the competentauthority and the owner of the factory of any matter related to the conditionsof industrial safety inside the factory and of the recommendations it makesregarding the latter.(3) The Industrial Safety Committee shall holda meeting at least once a month. It shall be obliged to meet also in the caseof a serious accident or within one week after the discovery of an occupationaldisease.

– Notification of accidents:     Every owner of a factory shall inform thecompetent authority of any accident which may happen during the daily workinghours or because of the work itself, which may result in the death of a worker;fire or an explosion; serious injury; or the obstruction of any worker toperform his job.- Informing workers of occupational hazards: Everyowner of an industry shall inform his workers of the occupational hazards andmeans for protection against such hazards. He shall take the necessaryprecautions to protect workers against industrial accidents and occupationaldiseases.

– Training of workers:  Employers shall not assign a worker to performa job before providing him with enough training or before making him work underthe supervision of one or more experienced persons in the field.-Workers’ duties:   (1) Itshall be prohibited for a worker to perform an act which may expose him or theothers to danger. He shall be obliged to use every means of protection providedto him by the employer;(2) It shall be forbidden for a worker tointentionally damage or misuse the materials, machinery, tools and belongingsto an industry.- Stoppage of factories and industrialoperations(1) The competent authority may prohibit theoperation of a given factory if it establishes that:            (a) part of the walk-ways, works, machinery and tools used in thefactory are in a state or are placed or composed in a manner which exposesworkers to a physical danger or damages their health, unless they are repairedor changed or transferred so  that thedanger is removed;           (b) the industrial operation in the factory or any other operation is insuch a state which could cause physical harm to workers or their health, unlessthe employer takes the measures necessary to remove this danger.(2) The competent authority may prohibit thefabrication, transformation or completion of any machinery or tool or any otherthing to be fabricated or produced locally which may cause physical harm toworkers or their health in a given factory or workplace.- The responsibility of the owner of a factory:In a case of violation of the provisions, the owner of the factory, unless itis established otherwise, shall bear the responsibility of the violation.However, if the violation was a result of the workers’ infringement of hisduty, the owner shall not bear the responsibilities for the violation if it isestablished that he took all the required means to prevent such violation.(2)         It’s obvious from the above regulations thatneither the ministry of health nor the labor office considers the free workerswhom are not employed in the institutions.

They also miss many other minoritiesin institutions. They are mainly focused in establishment areas. Healthauthority should focus on all because every human have the right of beinghealthy.         For examples farmers are exposed to manyoccupational hazards from pesticides and others. In addition to that they arevulnerable groups whom need especial attention.

Also jobs in which the workerssit for hours continuously is at risk of constipation and others.      Theregulations should be supported by increasing awareness of workers withoutwhich their implementation will not result.   Economic factors also plays a role, the employee is not willing tocomply with regulations, not aware about its importance and in need of money.This makes the duty of the two bodies much more difficult and impractical inour situation.

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