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health is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical,
mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations – total health of
all at work



         Due to the many tragedies occurred in the
past.. Countries should have regulations to preserve the health of workers as
human right and to ensure the productivity of their workers thereby improving
their economy.

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        Occupational health among other disciplines
is multi-sectored and it’s mainly addressed by the ministry of health and labor
office in Sudan.


   The role of the ministry of health as taken from the Occupational Health Law of Khartoum State 2011 is highlighted as the following:

Directorate shall develop policies, strategies, systems, general guidelines and
technical standards necessary to ensure the health of workers and protect them
from occupational diseases and injuries in establishments with a professional
health impact according to scientific references.

        In addition to monitoring and controling
environmental risks and ensure that the work environment of the facility with
the professional health impact conforms to the health and environmental
standards and specifications specified by the Ministry.

     – Provision of advisory services in relation
to the health of personnel in all professions and in relation to the hazards of
the working environment in accordance with regulations and laws.

–  Consider complaints by individuals and groups
regarding occupational health.

–  Preparation of field and laboratory research
and studies of various industrial processes that is likely to cause health
hazards to workers.

 –  Conducting the necessary medical and
laboratory examinations on the workers in the facilities to ensure that the
working conditions are appropriate.

–  Sampling of materials used or traded in
industrial and agricultural processes or any other processes that may have a
detrimental effect on the health of the workers or the working environment, for
the purpose of analyzing them and identifying the effects resulting from their
use and circulation and informing the establishment there of to take the
necessary measures in this regard. .

–  The
use of photocopying and other equipment for the performance of its work.

 – To
review the results of the technical and administrative reports received by the
organization about the types of accidents and their causes, and to examine the
quantities of stocks of hazardous materials and how to store them. In addition
to contingency plan and risk analysis review.

      There are occupational health groups in the
localities that shall have the following functions:

(A) Implementing the environmental health
survey of the establishments and conducting various measurements in order to
improve the health work environment within the facility.

(B) Conduct a periodic medical examination of
workers in establishments with the professional health impact targeted to
detect occupational diseases in their first stages, treat them and remove their

(C) An extension inspection procedure to ensure
that the working environment conforms to established standards and staff

(D) Periodic and periodic medical disclosure

(E) Follow up the implementation of the
regulations issued by law.

 (F) Conduct
a periodic medical examination of workers in establishments with the
professional health impact targeted to detect occupational diseases in their
first stages, treat them and remove their causes.


Medical examination:

medical examination should be carried out by the owner to upon appointment in
order to bring the worker into work which is compatible with his physical,
mental and psychological health. And periodic medical examination must be
performed regularly to maintain workers health fitness and discover
occupational diseases early.

Also medical examination at the end of service
should be done. All this must be done by occupational health teams and the
medical doctors. And the owner should pay fully for the service

The above data should be kept in the health
record of employees and occupational accident register also.

Securing the healthy environment of the establishment by  prevention from noise and vibration, lighting,
the dust, radiation harmful and dangerous, atmospheric pressure changes, static
and mobile electricity, risk of explosion.

 The establishment shall undertake to prevent the risks of physical
and muscular stress arising from collisions between the body of the worker and
a solid body. And to prevent the biologic risks by taking measures to protect
workers from the risk of infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and
other biological hazards when the nature of the work exposed the workers to the
conditions of infection. Also providing the means of protection against
chemical hazards resulting from dealing with solid, liquid and gaseous
chemicals. Prevention of negative risks such as non availability such as means
of rescue, ambulance, cleaning, arrangement and organization in the

        The Minister shall issue a statement
specifying the limits of safety, conditions and precautions necessary to
prevent the risks.

risk prevention according to the nature of the activity carried out by the
establishment and the physical and chemical properties of the materials used.
The workers must be trained in fire fighting and fire fighting equipments.

Assessment of risks and disasters in the

obtaining a certificate of approval prior to
the establishment or building extension, and following the sanitary and
machines standards and other regulations.

Registration of facilities

Inspection by the Director of Occupational

Occupational Health Committee:

       The administration may obligate the
establishment of the activity which may cause any danger to the workers to
establish a health committee representing the employers and workers. The health
committee operates according to the directions issued by the department.

Terms of reference of the Health Committee:

 At the enterprise level shall be
responsible for drawing up and coordinating the general policy of occupational
health and protecting the workers from any danger that may arise from the work,
considering the causes of accidents and accidents and establishing precautions
to prevent recurrence. These committees work to reach the highest level of
physical, mental and psychological health for workers. Also the Minister shall
issue the regulation of the Committee. The functions of the Committee are:

Providing management with technical advice to upgrade and improve performance

(B) Follow-up of enforcement of occupational
health and safety plans and programs.

(C) Coordinate with competent bodies and
relevant bodies to promote and develop occupational health plans and programs.

(D) Study and prepare periodic reports on
occupational health.

(E) Seek physical and political support for
occupational health programs.

Preventive measures:

– Protection from radiation:  Without prejudice to the provisions of any
law regulating ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, the owner of each facility
shall protect workers from exposure to radiation risk and obtaining a
certificate indicating that the radiation is within the permissible limits.

– Protection from vapors and gases:  Necessary measures should be taken to protect
the workers when there is a potential for exposure to polluting or harmful

– The owner of each facility shall take first
aid and health services:

 (1) Providing
first aid service and treatment of injuries and emergencies within the facility
and facilitate access of injured to health institutions.

(2) If the number of workers in any facility
less than 50 workers, the company is committed to provide a first aid box and
cadre trained on first aid.

 (3) If
the number of workers with any establishment of fifty workers and even 100, the
institution is committed to use a qualified nurse or more for nursing and
ambulance work with every rosy work.

(4) If more than 100 workers exceed the number
of workers, the company is obliged to provide a treatment unit using a
qualified doctor.

(5) Without prejudice to the foregoing in
clauses (3.2.1), the Corporation may provide health insurance services to the

(6) The owner of each plant or plant must
vaccinate his workers against infectious and epidemic diseases according to the
directives of the Ministry.

(7) The owner of each facility must ensure that
all workers in the places of industry, cooking and eating food and drinks
within the establishment have the health certificates that indicate their
absence from epidemic and infectious diseases.


– Means of prevention by establishment is as the

(A) Informing the worker prior to the
employment of the hazards of his profession and obliging him to use the
prescribed means of prevention with the provision of appropriate personal
protective equipment and training for its use.

(B) The establishment may not incur any
expenses or deduct from wages for the provision of the necessary personal
protective measures.

– Means of protection by the worker is as the

a. To use the means of prevention and
undertakes to take care of the possession of them and the implementation of
instructions issued to maintain the health and prevention of work accidents.

B. Shall not commit any act intended to prevent
the implementation of instructions or abuse of the means set for the protection
and safety of workers engaged with him or change them or cause damage or damage
to them without prejudice to the provisions of any other law in this regard.

– Requirements for work in hazardous and
harmful industries: The regulations shall regulate the conditions of work in
hazardous industries and harmful to the health of workers in health-care

– Miscellaneous provisions

Violations and penalties

Without prejudice to any heavier penalty provided for in any other law, any
person who contravenes or refrains from implementing any of the provisions of
this law or the regulations, orders or rules issued under it shall be punished
upon conviction of a fine not less than one thousand pounds and not exceeding
ten thousand pounds or imprisonment Or both. (1)



The role
of labor office as indicated in regulations of 1997:

              all the
factories should be registered shall be provided with a certificate of
registration. And the register should be kept which include all the data it
deems necessary for each factory. Then the establishment of an industry or its
extension shall be subject to an authorization of the competent authority which
may close any industry or its extension operating without the said
authorization this is applied to any transformation of the existing buildings
into factories for assembling purposes or the addition of new machinery.

The following conditions are to obtain the

–  The
issuance of an authorization to install or modify a factory shall be subject to
the determination by the competent authority that the said factory fulfills the
necessary conditions to exist and operate.

– The Minister shall issue an order to be
published in the Official Gazette specifying the general conditions to be
fulfilled by each factory.

–  In
observance of the provisions of sub-paragraph 2, the competent Minister shall
specify the conditions to be fulfilled by every industry in the District.

– Inspection, notification of accidents and the
closure of industries

The competence of industrial safety inspectors

 (1) The
industrial safety inspector shall have the authority to enter a workplace
during working hours during the day or at night to perform his duties of
inspection or to verify accidents or examine machinery and materials or take
samples of them and to examine any information which he deems necessary.

(2) The owner of a factory or his deputy or
representative shall submit to the industrial safety inspector all the
requested information and data.



The Industrial Safety Committee:

 (1) In
every factory employing 500 workers or more, an Industrial Safety Committee
shall be established and composed of the manager as a president, the heads of
the production divisions, and two representatives of the unions as members ,
and the Industrial Safety Officer as a reporter.

(2) The Industrial Safety Committee shall be in
charge of drawing up the policy for industrial safety in the factory and the
supervision of its application. The Committee shall notify the competent
authority and the owner of the factory of any matter related to the conditions
of industrial safety inside the factory and of the recommendations it makes
regarding the latter.

(3) The Industrial Safety Committee shall hold
a meeting at least once a month. It shall be obliged to meet also in the case
of a serious accident or within one week after the discovery of an occupational

– Notification of accidents:     Every owner of a factory shall inform the
competent authority of any accident which may happen during the daily working
hours or because of the work itself, which may result in the death of a worker;
fire or an explosion; serious injury; or the obstruction of any worker to
perform his job.

– Informing workers of occupational hazards: Every
owner of an industry shall inform his workers of the occupational hazards and
means for protection against such hazards. He shall take the necessary
precautions to protect workers against industrial accidents and occupational

– Training of workers:  Employers shall not assign a worker to perform
a job before providing him with enough training or before making him work under
the supervision of one or more experienced persons in the field.

-Workers’ duties:

  (1) It
shall be prohibited for a worker to perform an act which may expose him or the
others to danger. He shall be obliged to use every means of protection provided
to him by the employer;

(2) It shall be forbidden for a worker to
intentionally damage or misuse the materials, machinery, tools and belongings
to an industry.

– Stoppage of factories and industrial

(1) The competent authority may prohibit the
operation of a given factory if it establishes that:

(a) part of the walk-ways, works, machinery and tools used in the
factory are in a state or are placed or composed in a manner which exposes
workers to a physical danger or damages their health, unless they are repaired
or changed or transferred so  that the
danger is removed;

(b) the industrial operation in the factory or any other operation is in
such a state which could cause physical harm to workers or their health, unless
the employer takes the measures necessary to remove this danger.

(2) The competent authority may prohibit the
fabrication, transformation or completion of any machinery or tool or any other
thing to be fabricated or produced locally which may cause physical harm to
workers or their health in a given factory or workplace.

– The responsibility of the owner of a factory:
In a case of violation of the provisions, the owner of the factory, unless it
is established otherwise, shall bear the responsibility of the violation.
However, if the violation was a result of the workers’ infringement of his
duty, the owner shall not bear the responsibilities for the violation if it is
established that he took all the required means to prevent such violation.(2)

         It’s obvious from the above regulations that
neither the ministry of health nor the labor office considers the free workers
whom are not employed in the institutions. They also miss many other minorities
in institutions. They are mainly focused in establishment areas. Health
authority should focus on all because every human have the right of being

        For examples farmers are exposed to many
occupational hazards from pesticides and others. In addition to that they are
vulnerable groups whom need especial attention. Also jobs in which the workers
sit for hours continuously is at risk of constipation and others.

regulations should be supported by increasing awareness of workers without
which their implementation will not result.

Economic factors also plays a role, the employee is not willing to
comply with regulations, not aware about its importance and in need of money.
This makes the duty of the two bodies much more difficult and impractical in
our situation.

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