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Group of persons banded together
for common purpose rights, privilege, goals, objective and distinct and independent
perspective of individual member of society. There are many social institutions.

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Family is basic social institution
from which all other institutions have grown and developed.

“Family is a
social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation and
Reproduction and procreation of children.” (Murdock,

Family is different structure but
similar in function in various societies.




Nuclear family:

It is traditional type of family
structure. It is based on one child and parent. This family receives strength
and stability.


Supplemented nuclear family indicated a
nuclear family plus one or more unmarried, separated or widowed relatives of
the parents, other than their unmarried children.


Sub-nuclear family is defined
as a fragment of a former nuclear family, for instance a widow/ widower with
her/his unmarried children or siblings (unmarried or widowed or separated or
divorced) living together.


(d) Single person household.

(e) Supplemented sub-nuclear
family refer to a group of relatives, members of a formerly complete
nuclear family along with some other unmarried, divorced or widowed relative
who was not a member of the nuclear family.

2. Single
parent family:

One parent raising one or more children. The single parent family is the
biggest change society has seen in terms of the changes in family structure.

3. Extended family:

 It includes aunties, cousins, grandparent living together.  This type of family form due to financial difficulties.

In an extended family, a man and
his wife live with the families of their married sons and with their unmarried
sons and daughters, grand children or great grant children in the paternal or
maternal line. Different types of extended family are still common in Asia.


patrilineal extended family is based on an extension of the father-son
relationship, while the matrilineal extended family is based on the
mother-daughter relationship. The extended family may also be extended
horizontally to include a group consisting of two or more brothers, their wives
and children. This horizontally extended family is called the fraternal or
collateral family

4. Grand
parent family:

This include grandparent raise
their children. They have to find additional sources to teach their children.


5. Step

This family creates a family which
merge from two separate families. This type of family has many problems. As
they can’t adjust with new on.

Monogamous family

A monogamous family is based on a
legal or social monogamy. In this case, an individual has only one
(official) partner during their lifetime or at any one time

Patriarchal Family:

Patriarchal family is a type of
family in which all authority belongs to the paternal side. In this family, the
eldest male or the father is the head of the family. He exercises his authority
over the members of the family. He presides over the religious rites of the
household; he is the guardian of the family goods. In the developed patriarchal
system of the past, the patriarch had unlimited and undisputed authority over
his wife, sons and daughters.


Matriarchal Family:

It is a form of family in which
authority is centered in the wife or mother. The matriarchal family system
implies rule of the family by the mother, not by the father. In this type of
family women are entitled to perform religious rites and husband lives in the
house of wife.


Patrilineal Family:

When descent is traced through the
father, it is called patrilineal family. In this type of family inheritance of
property takes place along the male line of descent. The ancestry of such
family is determined on the basis of male line or the father. A patrilineal
family is also patriarchal and patrilocal. This is the common type of family
prevalent today.

10. Matrilineal

In this type of family descent is
traced along the female line and inheritance of property also takes place along
the female line of descent (type, n.d.)




















institution in three perspective


Ø Functional perspective of

believe that:

Family is a
vital institution which plays a great role in maintain social order and stability.

It meets the
need of other institutions as well.

Family is
actually a primary socialization teaching children the norms and values of

believe that nuclear family is ideal family. They provide support ti their

claimed that nuclear family is so useful to society that is inevitable and

Universality of family:

claimed that he had found evidence of nuclear families in the 250 different
societies he studies

Ø The family is universal because it fulfils the
following essential functions for society

Ø Sexual – controls sexuality, provides stability for

Ø Reproductive – provides new members of society.

Ø Economic – family provides for its members.

Ø Educational
– family socialises the young into societies norms and values




Ø This perspective mainly focus on nuclear
family. It ignores diversity. It ignores the divorce rate.

Ø Especially the radial psychiatrics believe
that family is dysfunctional as it damage the individual health and mental illness.

Ø Functionalist ignore the gender inequality
within families.


Ø Conflict perspectives:


The conflict perspective views the family as a vehicle to
maintain patriarchy (gender inequality) and social inequality in society.

Conflict theory focuses the way in which members of the
family struggle for different aspects of life. This include struggle for power and

The Conflict perspective refers to the inequalities that
exist in all societies globally. Conflict theory is particularly interested in
the various aspects of master status in social position—the primary identifying
characteristic of an individual seen in terms of race or ethnicity, sex or
gender, age, religion, ability or disability, and socio-economic status.

to this theory, family work toward the continuance of social inequality within
a society and maintain status eqo.Conflict theorists have also seen the family
as a social arrangement benefiting men more than women, allowing men to
maintain a position of power. The traditional family form in most cultures
is patriarchal, contributing to inequality between the sexes. Males tend to
have more power and females tend to have less. Traditional male roles and
responsibilities are valued more than the traditional roles done by their wives
(i.e., housekeeping, child rearing).

 The traditional family is also an inequitable
structure for women and children. For example, more than 60 percent of all
mothers with children under six are in the paid workforce. Even though these
women spend as much (or more) time at paid jobs as their husbands, they also do
more of the housework and child care.

It is so difficult for individuals
to interact without conflict, growth of all the family members of the family
occurs through conflict. The conflicts and changes that occur in human life are
important indicators of normal development and growth of family members. The
important aspect of conflict is how to manage it. Family members should learn
how to manage conflicts so that it does not lead to alienated relationship.





The family
has a decisive role having the capacity and responsibility to impact the entire
society by its positive example. In order to fulfill its role in society
the family will educate children in moral values so that they will mature and
pass on these values to the future generations making society a safe and happy
place for all people to live and enjoy.

The family
has major role in society development as

relationship with children effect the society a lot.

the family
performs several functions for society

it socializes
children it provide emotional and economical support

in addition,
sudden or far-reaching changes in the family’s structure or processes threaten
its stability and weaken society


The conflict:
 That arises is the family
contribution to social inequality by reinforcing economic inequality and by
reinforcing patriarchy. The family can also be a source of conflict, including
physical violence and emotional cruelty, for its own members.


The interactions of family members
effect the society a lot. Couples have role towards the development of society
as well


If children knows the moral values
culture and way of living in society. They can easily adjust with society and
they tend to create the positive role toward society.

Family relationship with society
also depend upon the type of family. (elena, n.d.)

 Ability for a society to effectively function
and thrive is directly influenced by the strength and quality of family unit.

 The following are a few of the ways that the
family affects society:


ü The experiences of home and family directly influence a person’s
mental health, personal integrity and work ethic when that person enters the


ü Single-parent families are more likely to live in poverty.
Children in poverty-stricken homes seldom achieve high levels of education,
quality healthcare, and the influence of well-adjusted social groups.


ü The moral fiber among children and adolescents is weakening. When
children don’t have a home life that is rooted in security, consistency and
moral integrity, they are more inclined to participate in high-risk behaviors and
lose sight of a future of rewarding careers and family relationships.


A solid foundation of religion and
faith among members of society is crumbling. This could result in a decline in
fellowship, charity and safety among community members. (share, n.d.)

Ø Family treatment of on women :

This is an important factor how
family treat the women

If family is just and equal
towards women rights then it has positive effect on society. Treatment towards
women is changing as time passes

In some families the members treat
women equally and they have equal chance of performing their social activity

Women should be regarded as
functional component of society.


Ø Changes in family system due to urbanization
and industrialization:


Industrialization came about
around the late 18th century and early 19th century
industrialization refers to the shift form an agricultural economy to one that
is based on factory production. Urbanization and industrialization have
weakened family ties


v Conflict perspectives:

Cities are run by political and
economic elites that use their resources to enrich their positions and to take
resources from the poor and people of color. The diversity of social
backgrounds found in cities contributes to conflict over norms and values.

v Functional perspective:

Cities serve many important
functions for society but also have their dysfunctions. Functionalist theorists
differ on the relative merits and disadvantages of urban life, and in
particular on the degree to which a sense of community and social bonding
exists within cities.

v Symbolic perspective:

City residents differ in their
types of interaction and perceptions of urban life. Cities are not chaotic
places but rather locations in which strong norms and values exist.

  According to Parsons
after industrialization the family became nuclear, it had become structurally
isolated from wider family and they had no binding obligation the their wider
kinship, also due to the change in structure and demands of the family the
industrial nuclear family has lost some of its functions to other institutions
such as school and health services. Parsons believed that because industrial
society required a geographically mobile work force a geographically mobile
family is needed, according to Parsons it was a major reason why the family has
become nuclear large three generational families cannot relocate easily, but
nuclear families could.

 I would have to agree with parsons and young
and Wilmot that both their studies could be correct to a to some extent but
also conclude that the effect of industrialization to the family was that the
family structure were not only extended in pre-industrialization but also in
early industrialization because in both times a wider kinship seemed necessary
and then after that in modern society they changed into nuclear isolated family



Ø Family system of Pakistan:


Social life is a part of human
nature. Due to various reasons society is divided in rural and urban areas.
Similarly. Pakistani society is also divided in rural and urban society. Before
to creation of Pakistan the joint family system was much liked but today the
world social change also affected Pakistani culture.

Before the creation of Pakistan
Joint family system was found in a large number and was the most prefer system
in Pakistan but now in Today world of globalization and urbanization joint
family system is losing its power and family system in Pakistan has been
converted in nuclear family system. Both the system joint and nuclear has its own
advantages and disadvantages but today I will only discuss JOINT FAMILY SYSTEM.
Both the systems advantages and disadvantages are based of personal experience
of individual and different from one.

Joint family system financial
burden is share by all family member, and divided their responsibility and
people feel relax, everybody share their happiness and sorrow with each other’s. 

per cent of Pakistan prefers to live in a joint family system,
reveals a survey


of joint family system:

A joint family systems now lot of
crisis emerge on the issues like distribution of household tasks, allocation of
financial responsibilities among different members, division of resources in
the form of food and money. There are various reasons of each emerging issue in
joint family system. Firstly; members of joint families have no income
security. As if a person has surety that whatever he earned it is his own then
he could become ready to invest and entrepreneurs for the economy of the
country through proper savings. Joint family system also creates problems in
children rearing. As among various loving relations mostly it becomes
impossible for parents to prohibit their children from various bad habits, rude
attitude and wrong behaviors. Loving relations like uncles, aunties and
grandparents do not like to stop children harshly. They do not like to blame or
scold their young grandchildren and hence they bring up in a wrong support of
their loving relations which impacts their whole life badly and therefore they
do the same wrong deeds in their mature life and hinder their own career and
give loss to the country’s economy also. When little boys and girls groomed up
in such an environment where there are people who support them for wrong deeds then become
irresponsible individuals of the country who contribute to prevent
developmental process.

According to
Islamic point of view:

Being an Islamic country, people
of Pakistan prefer to adopt Islamic systems in their life styles so it is
important to inform Pakistani people that joint family system is strictly
prohibited in Islam. It does not like mix living of girls and boys in a form of
family. There are limitations by Islam to control unlawful intimate relations.
Some families in Pakistan are used to live in joint family system but trying to
follow this religious tradition in wrong way. This creates a lot of problems in
women’s life.


But now the family system is
changing in Pakistan .now nuclear family is more dominant (system, n.d.)























elena, e. a. (n.d.). ttps://
michelle. (n.d.).
Murdock, G. (n.d.).
share, f. (n.d.).
system, j. f. (n.d.).
type, f. (n.d.).

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