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Nuclear weapons proliferation, whether by state or nonstate actors,
poses one of the greatest threat in the International security and world
affairs. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive
power from nuclear reactions. Nuclear weapons are the most damaging weapons
that have been created. There are two ways to make nuclear weapons:

1.      fissile weapons (also called atomic bombs or
bombs) and

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2.      fusion weapons (also called hydrogen bombs,
H-bombs or thermonuclear weapons).

The way that the energy of nuclear detonation is different in these
nuclear manufacture technologies. Nuclear fission produces the atomic bomb, a
weapon of mass destruction that uses the force released by dividing atomic
nuclei. When a free neutron hits one atomic nucleus of radioactive material
such as uranium or plutonium, it knocks two or three other neutrons free of

nuclear weapons are the power of nuclear energy, nuclear energy used for
2 purposes; one is civil purpose and another one is military purpose.  Using nuclear energy for civil purpose is not
banned. In the 1950s, attention shifted to the peaceful purposes of nuclear
fission and its seizure of power generation. Today, the world produces a lot of
electricity from nuclear power as it did from all sources combined in the early
years of nuclear power. But there are some nations using for their military purposes
too. nations have nuclear weapons to show their military power. “The nine nations
that have nuclear weapons. Only five nations out of nine have legally recognized
nuclear weapons.

North Korea has claimed to have carried out its first successful
hydrogen bomb test, but which other nations have nuclear warheads. Just nine nations
around the world have access to nuclear weapons, according to a report from the
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).

In total, there are believed to be around 16,300 nuclear weapons spread
between these nine nations.

The United States, Russia, the UK, France, China, North Korea, India,
Pakistan, and Israel all control some nuclear weaponry. Russia and the US share
93 per cent of all nuclear warheads, but they have been asked to reduce the
number of weapons they have under the new START treaty (Treaty on Measures for
the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms).” (
cited on 16th January 16, 2018) according to this news there are  nine nations they have nuclear weapons. Main
problem of the Nuclear weapon is disrupting the balance of power between the
nations. In essence, the balance of power is a kind of international order. But
theorists differ from the normal operation of the balance of power. Structural
realists describe an “automatic version” of theory, since the balance
of the system is an automatic, self-regulating, and unintended consequence of
countries striving to achieve their own narrow interests. Previous versions of
the balance of power were more consistent with the “semi-automatic”
formula of theory, requiring a “balancing” state to throw its weight
on one side of the scale or the other, depending on which is lighter, to
regulate the system. The balancing process is a function of human coexistence,
with emphasis on the skill of diplomats and statesmen, a sense of community of
nations, shared responsibility, desire and the need to maintain the equilibrium
of the energy system. But because of this nuclear weapon this equilibrium is

Because of these nuclear weapons nearest nations are most affected if
another nearest country has nuclear weapons. Example if India has nuclear
weapon our Sri Lanka, Pakistan and other nearest nations mostly affect by India’s
nuclear weapon.

Another problem is If terrorists have nuclear weapons, Problems will be
multiply. For an example When LTTE period if they have weapons it’s difficult
to beat them by Srilankan army and there are lot of problems might be raised. “The
threat from terrorists trying to launch a nuclear attack that would
“change our world” is real, President Barack Obama has said. The
world has taken “concrete” steps to prevent nuclear terrorism, he
told the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington. But the so-called Islamic State
(IS) obtaining a nuclear weapon is “one of the greatest threats to global
security,” he added. More than 50 nations were represented at the summit.”
(BBC news 02nd April 2016). It shows how Problem will arise if terrorists have
nuclear weapons.

The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) is an essential element of the
global nuclear non-proliferation regime and establishes a comprehensive,
legally binding framework based on three principles.

1.      States that do not possess nuclear weapons as
of 1967 – one year before the treaty is opened for signature – agree not to
acquire them.

2.      the five States known to have tested nuclear
weapons as of 1967 – the nuclear-weapon States – not to assist other States in
acquiring them and moving towards eventual disarmament; and

3.      To ensure access by non-nuclear-weapon States
to civilian nuclear technology and energy development.

The objective of the NPT is to prevent the proliferation of nuclear
weapons and weapons technology, to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy
and to promote the goal of disarmament. The Treaty establishes a safeguards
system under the responsibility of the IAEA, which also plays a central role
under the Treaty in areas of technology transfer for peaceful purposes. This
treaty signed of 1st July 1968 and effective 5th march
1970. Any How most of the nations (1960 nations) signed with this Treaty. But There
are 5 nations did not sign with this treaty. India, Israel, Pakistan, North
Korea and South Sudan Did not sign with this treaty. It is one of the weakness
of the treaty.

Scientists should be interested in the proliferation of nuclear weapons
and see the role that technology can play in mitigating the threat. Although it
is natural for scientists to want to simplify the problem in a way that makes
it seem concrete and solvable, the formation of a very simple global model can
lead to inappropriate, wasted and even counterproductive solutions. The
tensions surrounding nuclear weapons over the decades have simplified models of
problems, giving us some simple answers. Nuclear proliferation concerns should
place constraints on the growth of nuclear energy, but there are no rapid
reforms to the problem of proliferation. Unfortunately, scientists are the
worst criminals who seek easy answers through technological reform. During the
1960s, this model led many physicists and others to predict that there would be
20 or more nuclear-weapon States by 1980. The failure of this prediction in the
early 1980s led to a reassessment of this model. The main problem with the
original model is that there is no essential need for states to produce nuclear
weapons. For most states, nuclear weapons do not have a clear benefit for
strengthening security, either as a component of a military strategy or as a
political tool. States that have followed nuclear weapons have done so from
their naive and theoretical point of view.

The continued success of the NPT requires that we strengthen the system
and provide a variety of incentives for countries to remain within the system.
Security assurances have provided incentives in the past for countries to
accede to and remain in the NPT. It is not known how long it can last
successfully, especially if someday the US influence weakens. UU. In world affairs.
Other measures must be considered to keep the system united.

In the original NPT negotiations, countries that have committed
themselves as non-weapon States will, in turn, receive assistance to develop
their civil nuclear energy programs. This was an incentive for countries not to
abandon the non-proliferation regime, and at the time were a powerful argument
for non-proliferation of civilian nuclear energy. We must remember that there
is much greater optimism about the future of commercial nuclear energy when the
system began; the prospects for nuclear energy were almost unlimited. Although
this incentive was not strong enough to attract India and Pakistan, it was
possible to attract North Korea to join it in 1985. At present, the negotiation
of the NPT for most countries is designed for mutual security and cost
reduction, Abandonment of nuclear weapons, the threat of nuclear attack is
reduced without the enormous cost of maintaining and maintaining an independent
deterrent. The Treaty itself has never been amended.

The treaty has been at risk over the past decade because of clandestine
activity within the signatory states. It has been discovered that one (Iraq)
has operated secret nuclear programs in defiance of its NPT obligations. The
other country (North Korea) continues to resist the efforts of the
International Atomic Energy Agency to verify compliance with its safeguards
agreement under the NPT.

Some argue that a one-stage fuel cycle strategy is destined to produce
future uranium shortages and plutonium recycling is inevitable to avoid rising
fuel costs due to depletion of resources. While we appeal to the simple logic
that all resources are limited and therefore should be conserved, there will be
technological changes that generally reduce the costs of extraction and
extraction. However, the upper limit of uranium cost would be the cost of
extracting from sea water, which is thought to be ~ $ 100 / lb, almost eight
times the current price, and depression. If this increase in the price of
nuclear fuel will occur, the cost of nuclear electricity will increase by not
more than 20%. Therefore, the economic argument for reprocessing, even in this
extreme case, will not be convincing.

To date, the commercial nuclear industry has played little or no role as
a bridge to enter the country into a nuclear arms race, and there are no known
cases in which persons or subnational groups steal nuclear weapons facilities.
However, this does not mean that there is nothing to worry about.


It is important to address the need of developing countries to increase
energy supplies. To reduce their reliance on fossil fuels, it is desirable that
the developed world share nuclear technology with them, with appropriate
safeguards, as provided for in article IV of the NPT. It is time to consider
with caution the increased use of nuclear energy under the most stringent
standards of protection. Energy reactors (below cost) can be provided to host
countries under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Other forms of energy
production can also be exported under this mechanism, leaving the option of
technology to a bilateral agreement. However, the recipient will have to ratify
the NPT and accept the latest IAEA safeguards to receive subsidized reactors. A
full range of initial inspections will be needed. Fuel cycles that produce
materials that can be used for weapons in any part of the process cannot
receive financial incentives. It will give more support to the nuclear non-proliferation in determining world affairs. 

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