Nuclear weapons proliferation, whether by state or nonstate actors,poses one of the greatest threat in the International security and worldaffairs. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructivepower from nuclear reactions.
Nuclear weapons are the most damaging weaponsthat have been created. There are two ways to make nuclear weapons: 1. fissile weapons (also called atomic bombs orbombs) and 2.
fusion weapons (also called hydrogen bombs,H-bombs or thermonuclear weapons). The way that the energy of nuclear detonation is different in thesenuclear manufacture technologies. Nuclear fission produces the atomic bomb, aweapon of mass destruction that uses the force released by dividing atomicnuclei. When a free neutron hits one atomic nucleus of radioactive materialsuch as uranium or plutonium, it knocks two or three other neutrons free ofcharge.
nuclear weapons are the power of nuclear energy, nuclear energy used for2 purposes; one is civil purpose and another one is military purpose. Using nuclear energy for civil purpose is notbanned. In the 1950s, attention shifted to the peaceful purposes of nuclearfission and its seizure of power generation. Today, the world produces a lot ofelectricity from nuclear power as it did from all sources combined in the earlyyears of nuclear power. But there are some nations using for their military purposestoo. nations have nuclear weapons to show their military power. “The nine nationsthat have nuclear weapons.
Only five nations out of nine have legally recognizednuclear weapons. North Korea has claimed to have carried out its first successfulhydrogen bomb test, but which other nations have nuclear warheads. Just nine nationsaround the world have access to nuclear weapons, according to a report from theStockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).In total, there are believed to be around 16,300 nuclear weapons spreadbetween these nine nations.The United States, Russia, the UK, France, China, North Korea, India,Pakistan, and Israel all control some nuclear weaponry. Russia and the US share93 per cent of all nuclear warheads, but they have been asked to reduce thenumber of weapons they have under the new START treaty (Treaty on Measures forthe Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms).” (http://www.independent.
co.uk/news/world/politics/the-nine-countries-that-have-nuclear-weapons-a6798756.htmlcited on 16th January 16, 2018) according to this news there are nine nations they have nuclear weapons.
Mainproblem of the Nuclear weapon is disrupting the balance of power between thenations. In essence, the balance of power is a kind of international order. Buttheorists differ from the normal operation of the balance of power.
Structuralrealists describe an “automatic version” of theory, since the balanceof the system is an automatic, self-regulating, and unintended consequence ofcountries striving to achieve their own narrow interests. Previous versions ofthe balance of power were more consistent with the “semi-automatic”formula of theory, requiring a “balancing” state to throw its weighton one side of the scale or the other, depending on which is lighter, toregulate the system. The balancing process is a function of human coexistence,with emphasis on the skill of diplomats and statesmen, a sense of community ofnations, shared responsibility, desire and the need to maintain the equilibriumof the energy system. But because of this nuclear weapon this equilibrium isdisrupted.
Because of these nuclear weapons nearest nations are most affected ifanother nearest country has nuclear weapons. Example if India has nuclearweapon our Sri Lanka, Pakistan and other nearest nations mostly affect by India’snuclear weapon. Another problem is If terrorists have nuclear weapons, Problems will bemultiply.
For an example When LTTE period if they have weapons it’s difficultto beat them by Srilankan army and there are lot of problems might be raised. “Thethreat from terrorists trying to launch a nuclear attack that would”change our world” is real, President Barack Obama has said. Theworld has taken “concrete” steps to prevent nuclear terrorism, hetold the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington.
But the so-called Islamic State(IS) obtaining a nuclear weapon is “one of the greatest threats to globalsecurity,” he added. More than 50 nations were represented at the summit.”(BBC news 02nd April 2016). It shows how Problem will arise if terrorists havenuclear weapons. The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) is an essential element of theglobal nuclear non-proliferation regime and establishes a comprehensive,legally binding framework based on three principles.
1. States that do not possess nuclear weapons asof 1967 – one year before the treaty is opened for signature – agree not toacquire them.2.
the five States known to have tested nuclearweapons as of 1967 – the nuclear-weapon States – not to assist other States inacquiring them and moving towards eventual disarmament; and3. To ensure access by non-nuclear-weapon Statesto civilian nuclear technology and energy development.The objective of the NPT is to prevent the proliferation of nuclearweapons and weapons technology, to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energyand to promote the goal of disarmament. The Treaty establishes a safeguardssystem under the responsibility of the IAEA, which also plays a central roleunder the Treaty in areas of technology transfer for peaceful purposes. Thistreaty signed of 1st July 1968 and effective 5th march1970.
Any How most of the nations (1960 nations) signed with this Treaty. But Thereare 5 nations did not sign with this treaty. India, Israel, Pakistan, NorthKorea and South Sudan Did not sign with this treaty. It is one of the weaknessof the treaty.
Scientists should be interested in the proliferation of nuclear weaponsand see the role that technology can play in mitigating the threat. Although itis natural for scientists to want to simplify the problem in a way that makesit seem concrete and solvable, the formation of a very simple global model canlead to inappropriate, wasted and even counterproductive solutions. Thetensions surrounding nuclear weapons over the decades have simplified models ofproblems, giving us some simple answers.
Nuclear proliferation concerns shouldplace constraints on the growth of nuclear energy, but there are no rapidreforms to the problem of proliferation. Unfortunately, scientists are theworst criminals who seek easy answers through technological reform. During the1960s, this model led many physicists and others to predict that there would be20 or more nuclear-weapon States by 1980. The failure of this prediction in theearly 1980s led to a reassessment of this model. The main problem with theoriginal model is that there is no essential need for states to produce nuclearweapons. For most states, nuclear weapons do not have a clear benefit forstrengthening security, either as a component of a military strategy or as apolitical tool. States that have followed nuclear weapons have done so fromtheir naive and theoretical point of view.
The continued success of the NPT requires that we strengthen the systemand provide a variety of incentives for countries to remain within the system.Security assurances have provided incentives in the past for countries toaccede to and remain in the NPT. It is not known how long it can lastsuccessfully, especially if someday the US influence weakens. UU.
In world affairs.Other measures must be considered to keep the system united.In the original NPT negotiations, countries that have committedthemselves as non-weapon States will, in turn, receive assistance to developtheir civil nuclear energy programs. This was an incentive for countries not toabandon the non-proliferation regime, and at the time were a powerful argumentfor non-proliferation of civilian nuclear energy. We must remember that thereis much greater optimism about the future of commercial nuclear energy when thesystem began; the prospects for nuclear energy were almost unlimited. Althoughthis incentive was not strong enough to attract India and Pakistan, it waspossible to attract North Korea to join it in 1985.
At present, the negotiationof the NPT for most countries is designed for mutual security and costreduction, Abandonment of nuclear weapons, the threat of nuclear attack isreduced without the enormous cost of maintaining and maintaining an independentdeterrent. The Treaty itself has never been amended.The treaty has been at risk over the past decade because of clandestineactivity within the signatory states. It has been discovered that one (Iraq)has operated secret nuclear programs in defiance of its NPT obligations. Theother country (North Korea) continues to resist the efforts of theInternational Atomic Energy Agency to verify compliance with its safeguardsagreement under the NPT. Some argue that a one-stage fuel cycle strategy is destined to producefuture uranium shortages and plutonium recycling is inevitable to avoid risingfuel costs due to depletion of resources.
While we appeal to the simple logicthat all resources are limited and therefore should be conserved, there will betechnological changes that generally reduce the costs of extraction andextraction. However, the upper limit of uranium cost would be the cost ofextracting from sea water, which is thought to be ~ $ 100 / lb, almost eighttimes the current price, and depression. If this increase in the price ofnuclear fuel will occur, the cost of nuclear electricity will increase by notmore than 20%. Therefore, the economic argument for reprocessing, even in thisextreme case, will not be convincing.To date, the commercial nuclear industry has played little or no role asa bridge to enter the country into a nuclear arms race, and there are no knowncases in which persons or subnational groups steal nuclear weapons facilities.However, this does not mean that there is nothing to worry about.
It is important to address the need of developing countries to increaseenergy supplies. To reduce their reliance on fossil fuels, it is desirable thatthe developed world share nuclear technology with them, with appropriatesafeguards, as provided for in article IV of the NPT. It is time to considerwith caution the increased use of nuclear energy under the most stringentstandards of protection. Energy reactors (below cost) can be provided to hostcountries under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the United NationsFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Other forms of energyproduction can also be exported under this mechanism, leaving the option oftechnology to a bilateral agreement.
However, the recipient will have to ratifythe NPT and accept the latest IAEA safeguards to receive subsidized reactors. Afull range of initial inspections will be needed. Fuel cycles that producematerials that can be used for weapons in any part of the process cannotreceive financial incentives. It will give more support to the nuclear non-proliferation in determining world affairs.