Nick Giannuzzi 12/15/17Ms. Powers Preliminary OutlineResearch Statement: Examine the relative factors that led the arms race to develop so quickly during the Eisenhower and Kennedy presidencies. I. IntroductionA. The world had been reconfigured as a result of World War IIThe decision to drop the bomb on both Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 was the opening salvo in a New World order, which would mark the end of one war and the beginning of anotherEssentially began the arms race between the US and Soviets The Soviets responded by having those German scientists they had captured from the V-2 Program begin working on constructing an atomic bombThe US and its Western Allies seemed at odds with the Soviet Union, who refused to budge from Eastern Europe as a matter of protectionBy 1946, it was evident to Western leaders such as Winston Churchill that Europe was now divided in two (“The Iron Curtain Speech”) B. Thesis: Once the Soviet Union proved that it could produce both the atomic and then the hydrogen bomb, the American response was to increase its spending as a way to reclaim an advantage defensively, the Soviets responded in kind, instigating a spiraling arms race from the end of the Korean War to the Kennedy-Khrushchev Nuclear Test Ban treaty of 1963. II. Subtopic #1A. Worsening relations between the US and the USSR and their sense of vulnerabilityRussia’s vulnerability: USA used an A-bomb in 1945United States:USSR successfully tested an A-bomb in September 1949Communist expansion were confirmed after the China communist party’s victoryNorth Korean invasion of South Korea a. January 1950? USA started to develop the H-bomb i. start of the thermonuclear arms race and superpower rivalry ii. Both sides then had H bombs by 1953. B. Economic spending on Arms Race United StatesThroughout war ? 29% of all military and 11% of all Federal Government spending.Had manufactured 3,104 nuclear warheads by 1962? 9 times as many as USSRRussia Estimates over 35% of the GDP spent on military forces. Between 15% and 20% went to its nuclear weapons programsattempt to match and even outspend the US? by 1962 still only had 392 warheads III. Subtopic #2Mutually assured destruction American had technological lead- American public still thought there was a ‘missile gap’ in favour of the Soviet Union. Began being used in 1961 to provide a degree of stability? accepting the complete destruction of both sides in an nuclear warImpossible to prevent nuclear attack; but the retaliation would still be launched, and both sides would suffer equal loses and destruction. If ICBMs were placed around world, and the SLBM fleet was virtually invisible, then enough would survive to retaliate.