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  Naming
alcohols

·     
The name of the alcohol depends on the position of the hydroxyl (-OH)
group.

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Ethan-1-ol                                                  
   Molecular Formula:

                                                                        
Shortened Structural Formula:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Propan-2-ol                                                    Molecular
Formula:

                                                                         Shortened Structural Formula:

 

Isomers

·     
An isomer is a compound with the same molecular formula but different
structural formula, for example:

 

 

Pentan-2-ol                                                    Molecular Formula:

                                                                        
Shortened Structural Formula:

 

 

 

 

 

Pentan-3-ol                                                   Molecular Formula:

                                                                       
Shortened Structural Formula:

 

 

 

 

 

Ø Fuels

·     
A fuel is a substance which burns to produce energy.

 

Ø Combustion

·     
Combustion is also known as burning.

·     
Burning a substance will either release heat energy (Exothermic) or
take the heat in (endothermic).

·     
Combustion takes place when different fuels such as alkanes, alkenes,
cycloalkanes and alcohols react with oxygen.

·     
However without enough oxygen present, combustion cannot occur,
therefore incomplete combustion will take place.

 

Ø Energy released

·     
To find the heat released you can use the
equation Ehcm   t

*Example*

Specifi heat capacity for water is always 418

 

 

 

Ø Combustion Calculation for
alcohol

Hydrocarbon oxygen   Carbon dioxide  water

Ethanol           oxygen  Carbon dioxide  water

C2H6O                     O2          CO2                       3H2O

 

Incomplete Combustion calculation for alcohol

Hydrocarbon+oxygen  Carbon monoxide water

 

 

 

Experiment Procedure

 

Measure volume of water

Measure mass of spirit burner before and after              

Measure temperature before and after

Record results and repeat experiment again

 

Data: Source 1

Name: Energy from fuels

Where it came from: Aim- To investigate which alcohol will release the
most heat energy.

 

Name of fuel

Mass of fuel (start)

Mass of fuel (end)

Mass of fuel (used)

Initial temperature
(degrees)

Final temperature
(degrees)

Temperature
rise (degrees)

Ethanol

177.84g
177.41g

177.41g
177.03g

0.43g
0.38g

20
21

31
32

11
11

Propanol

168.81g
168.81g

168.81g
168.19g
 

0.27g
0.35g

21
22

31
34

10
12

Butanol

182.81g
182.53g

182.53g
182.24g

0.28g
0.29g

23
22

33
32

10
10

Pentanol

177.15g
176.91g

176.91g
176.63g

0.23g
0.28g

21
22

31
33

10
11

 

 

Ethanol: Average mass used
temperature rise: 0.41g

Average temperature:11

 

Propanol: Average mass used
temperature rise:0.31g

Average temperature:11

 

           Butanol:
Average mass used temperature rise:0.29g

Average temperature:10

 

Pentanol: Average mass used
temperature rise:0.26g

Average temperature:10.5

 

Energy released per gram

 

Eh=cm t

 

 

 

 

Ehcm  t

 

 

 

 

Ehcm  t

 

 

 

 

Ehcm   t

Data: Source 2

Name: Combustion of alcohols

 

Where it came from: https://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/gcse/documents/Module7/N-m07-24.pdf

 

Alcohol

Number of
carbon atoms

Energy
released
(KJ/g)

Ethanol

2

29.7

Propanol

3

33.6

Butanol

4

36.1

Pentanol

5

37.7

 

 

 

 

Analysing
of data:

 

By
comparing my own results to the results the heat energy released was
dissimilar.

 

 

Conclusion: In conclusion, I found
that pentanol released the most heat energy from both sources.

Evaluation: If I was to do this
experiment again I would repeat all of it again for more accurate results.

I
would expand the range of alcohols used too see as the number of carbons
increase would the heat energy released also increase.

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