Most of the plants we grow depend on the pollination of insects or other animals. Through this process both plants and pollinators benefit and, in addition, better fruit and seed quality of our vegetables is achieved in the garden. The flowers generate substances rich in sugars, minerals, amino acids and aromatic extracts, the nectar produced by the plant attracts insects and they carry out the involuntary pollination of the stamen to the pistil of the same flower or other plants. This action is vital for the plants and to maintain the food crops of the world.
Flowers and insects are adapted to each other so that flowers with shallow flowers are pollinated by, for example, flies. Flowers that are deeper can be pollinated by butterflies, which have a long suction cable. In insect-pollinated plants, pollen grains are often sticky or hairy, and lesser amounts of pollen are formed in comparison with wind pollinated plants. Pollination can also be done using hummingbirds or bats.
There are two types of pollination, the direct one that is also known as self-pollination and the indirect or cross-pollination. The direct is when the pollen enters the pistil of the same flower, while in the crusade, the pollen is transported from one flower to another, and therefore maintains and drives a great genetic diversity. In this way the crops can adapt to the environment and compete with other plants.
For fertilization to took in action, the pollen must be transported from the stalk to the mark on the pistil with the help of insects. The insects visit the flowers to gather foods that either consist of pollen, which is protein rich, or nectar, which is the sweet flower night. Insect pollinated plants often have strong smells or colored petals.
The mega-nosed fly, (Moegistorhynchus longirostris) is an important pollinator of regional endemic plants along the west coast, and this ecosystem service has attracted considerable attention from pollination biologists, and has been referred to in more than 30 publications. The mega-nosed fly has the longest proboscis relating to its body size for all known insects. It’s an essential species along the coast of South Africa, where it pollinates for its well-being, brief or thorough, the long-tubed flowers of approximately 20 species of Iridaceous, Genmaicha and Orchidaceous. M. longirostris has been thoroughly discussed in the pollination biology literature and has an arms race between it and the long-tubed flowers it pollinates with.
Species pollinated entirely by M. longirostris have much longer floral tubes which makes collecting nectar not possible to other insects, including species much like the long-proboscis fly. M. longirostris is the only insect with a mouthpart long enough to effectively collect pollen on these long-tubed flowers, therefore the fly is considered an essential species in the ecosystems in which it is located.