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Metabolic syndrome is a “growing health
problem that has reached pandemic proportions,” it now affects a quarter of the
world’s population. “Itis widelyrecognized that a high-calorie western food
diet contributes greatly to the development of metabolic syndrome (Mamikutty et al. 2014). Several
studies suggested that diets with high content of fat and simple carbohydrate,
especially fructose, are strongly associated with insulin resistance (Basciano et al. 2005).

Features of metabolic syndrome include
insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, visceral obesity and hypertension (Tappy andLe, Bray et al. 2004). Furthermore dyslipidemia (lipid abnormalities) is a
major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke and peripheral vascular
disease (Panchal et al.

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Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle ? the
major site of postprandial glucose disposal ? is one of the earliest signs in
the development of type 2 diabetes(Wilkes et al. 1998, Lorenzo et al. 2003).

Glucose uptake into skeletal muscle is
primarily through glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), which is modulated by insulin signaling
or the alternative pathway via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase
(AMPK) (Leguisamo et al. 2012). AMPK plays a
key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. Activation of AMPK leads to
increased glucose uptake and fatty acid influx into cells, and is accompanied
by up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1?), a potent transcriptional cofactor in regulating
mitochondrial biogenesis and function (Sears et al. 1996, Desvergne and Wahli 1999, Tontonoz et al.).

There has been a lot of interest
into potential strategies to treat and prevent metabolic syndrome, including
non-pharmaceutical options. 

sativa (NS) seeds possess several pharmacological activities such as
neuroprotective (Kanter
et al. 2006), nephroprotective (Uz et al. 2008), antimutagenic (Badary et al. 2007),
anticarcinogenic (Breyer
et al. 2009), and anticonvulsant
activities (Ilhan
et al. 2005). Moreover, NS is known for
its hypotensive (Khattab
and Nagi 2007), hepatoprotective (Coban et al 2010), and
immunomodulatory effects (Hmza et al. 2013)

Ginger is an underground rhizome of
plant Zingiber
officinale belonging to the family Zingiberaceae and it is one
of the most widely consumed spices worldwide.Based
on the scientific findings through in vitro, in vivo, and human clinical
trials, ginger has the potential to treat many aspects of cardiovascular
diseases such as hyperlipidemia(Kandnur and Goyal 2005), platelet aggregation(Srivastava 1984), and hypertension(Akinyemi et al. 2013).

The current
study was initiated with the objective of developing an ideal animal model for
metabolic syndrome. The study provided further insight into the roles of NS and
ginger compared to MET on MS and its associated insulin resistance. Another objective of this study is
to find out the molecular mechanism of their effects. This may help to set a new direction toward the
development of effective treatment.

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