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media such as the YouTube, as well as through
informational pamphlets in the mail.

should also be allocated to allow to expand its number of
learning centers. Presently there are approximately 30 learning centers in the
United States, typically set up in libraries and community centers
(, 2017). In particular, the government should fund learning
centers in underserved communities, which have fewer resources for seniors to
learn about cyber security. The learning centers are staffed primarily by
volunteers. The government can increase the number and quality of volunteers by
offering, for example, tax incentives to individuals in exchange for teaching a
set number of courses each year. Educating seniors about the fundamentals of
cybersecurity will empower them to protect their identities and assets online,
and will help prevent a massive cyber-attack launched through malware connected
to emails or suspicious websites.

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addition to expanding existing programs, this policy paper recommends creating
an educational resource for seniors available through YouTube, titled
“Empowering Adults and Seniors.” It would consist of a series of ten-minute
videos that contain structured lessons on cybersecurity issues, such as
phishing scams, protecting data and identifying cyberattacks, among other
things. The videos should be narrated in a realistic and factual tone similar
to unbiased new reporting and documentaries. The delivery method must also
recognize that seniors bring a variety of intellectual resources to the table
and are capable of making reasonable decisions, and at the same time deliver
the lesson in a clear and easy to understand method.

is a particularly useful medium for educating senior citizens on cybersecurity
issues for a number of reasons. First, it is the most widely used search engine
in the world, which means that a senior who is interested in learning about
cybersecurity will likely conduct a YouTube search for instructional videos.
Second, YouTube allows any senior with an Internet connection to access
content. That means that seniors with mobility issues or those who are confined
to their homes for health reasons will be able to get necessary education.
Finally, geographic location will no longer hinder access. That means that
seniors living in remote or underserved locations will still have access.
Adding a YouTube-based educational component for the national cybersecurity
education policy will expand the nation’s educational reach, improving national

Cybersecurity Work Force


cyberattacks is only one aspect of cybersecurity. An effective cybersecurity
policy must also provide options for mitigating the damage that occurs as a
result of a cyber-attack. As mentioned previously, exponential technology
advancement makes it imperative that the US has a highly skilled cybersecurity
workforce trained on how to address attacks and threats. Congressman Will Hurd
of Texas, the chairman of the House Information Technology Subcommittee, argues
that the US needs to create a “cyber national guard” of highly trained
individuals specifically designated to fight cyber warfare (Christ, 2017). The government
must allocate additional resources to identify and train promising young people
interested in working in the field of cybersecurity. This should include
increased funding for public school programs and scholarships for cybersecurity
camps as well as other extracurricular activities.

previously discussed, there are numerous educational programs that encourage
youth to take an interest in professional cyber security. This policy
recommendation supports the suggestions made by National Initiative for Cyber
Security Education (NICE) showing four ways that American schools can prepare
the cybersecurity workforce of tomorrow. First, schools should increase
awareness about careers in the cybersecurity field. This can be done through a
federal awareness campaign aimed at teaches, administrators, parents and
students. In addition, schools can incorporate cybersecurity into camps, clubs
and competitions (NICE, 2017). Second, cybersecurity education should be
implemented alongside other STEM education with a demonstration of how the
knowledge and skills overlap. Third, the government should stimulate innovation
in K-12 education by offering incentives and recognizing improvements in
educator programs for the instructors who will focus on teaching cybersecurity
to students. Finally, the government should formally recognize a career pathway
for high school students that will explicitly prepare them to enter the field
(NICE, 2017).

policy paper recommends that the Department of Education coordinates with NICE,
the NSA and other federal agencies to implement educational standards that will
increase awareness of careers in cybersecurity, and promote the development of important
technical skills necessary for working in such a career. In particular, the
Department of Education should create a curriculum option that streamlines high
school students’ education in order to prepare interested students to enter the
field (NICE, 2017). Schools already offer similar career track curricula for
other STEM fields. These can serve as guidelines for developing a career track
for cybersecurity.

Improved Coordination between Federal
Departments and Agencies

Cybersecurity is a complicated issue
that requires the coordination of multiple federal departments and agencies,
specialists in the private sector and international leaders. While the
government agencies manage to prevent tens of thousands of attacks each year,
there are still thousands of successful attacks. There are several barriers to
maximizing the effectiveness of our cybersecurity activities. One of the
largest obstacles is that there is confusion about the multiple different laws
on cybersecurity and which agency is responsible for what aspect of
cybersecurity. Defense in cyberspace requires integrating different kinds of
people, information sources, and technical capabilities, for protecting assets
that can be distributed across many systems and physical locations” (Coalition
for Cybersecurity and Law, 2017, p. 3).

Information sharing among this diverse
group of organizations in order to stay ahead of constantly evolving cyber
threats is a monumental task. This section of the policy paper will outline how
cybersecurity is delegated among the various departments. It will then make
recommendations for how to improve cybersecurity by streamlining communication
and cooperation.          

federal government is responsible for national cybersecurity on two fronts.
First, it must protect federal systems from cyberattacks. Second, it must
assist the non-government sector in cyber protection (Fischer, 2016). The
government divides responsibilities related to these two obligations among
multiple agencies and departments. Which governmental department and
corresponding agency takes the lead in the event of a cyber attack depends on
what kind of response is necessary. The Department of Justice, particularly the
FBI and National Cyber Investigative Joint Task Force (NCIJTF) oversee
activities related to responding to threats (FBI, 2016). This includes directing
investigations and law enforcement activities and designing and implementing
plans to disrupt and mitigate threats (Obama, 2016).        

Department of Homeland


            The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is tasked with
providing cybersecurity for the nation’s critical infrastructure. DHS is also

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