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media such as the YouTube, as well as throughinformational pamphlets in the mail.             Fundsshould also be allocated to allow SeniorNet.org to expand its number oflearning centers.

Presently there are approximately 30 learning centers in theUnited States, typically set up in libraries and community centers(SeniorNet.org, 2017). In particular, the government should fund learningcenters in underserved communities, which have fewer resources for seniors tolearn about cyber security. The learning centers are staffed primarily byvolunteers. The government can increase the number and quality of volunteers byoffering, for example, tax incentives to individuals in exchange for teaching aset number of courses each year. Educating seniors about the fundamentals ofcybersecurity will empower them to protect their identities and assets online,and will help prevent a massive cyber-attack launched through malware connectedto emails or suspicious websites.             Inaddition to expanding existing programs, this policy paper recommends creatingan educational resource for seniors available through YouTube, titled”Empowering Adults and Seniors.” It would consist of a series of ten-minutevideos that contain structured lessons on cybersecurity issues, such asphishing scams, protecting data and identifying cyberattacks, among otherthings.

The videos should be narrated in a realistic and factual tone similarto unbiased new reporting and documentaries. The delivery method must alsorecognize that seniors bring a variety of intellectual resources to the tableand are capable of making reasonable decisions, and at the same time deliverthe lesson in a clear and easy to understand method.             YouTubeis a particularly useful medium for educating senior citizens on cybersecurityissues for a number of reasons. First, it is the most widely used search enginein the world, which means that a senior who is interested in learning aboutcybersecurity will likely conduct a YouTube search for instructional videos.Second, YouTube allows any senior with an Internet connection to accesscontent. That means that seniors with mobility issues or those who are confinedto their homes for health reasons will be able to get necessary education.Finally, geographic location will no longer hinder access.

That means thatseniors living in remote or underserved locations will still have access.Adding a YouTube-based educational component for the national cybersecurityeducation policy will expand the nation’s educational reach, improving nationalcybersecurity.           Cybersecurity Work Force              Preventingcyberattacks is only one aspect of cybersecurity.

An effective cybersecuritypolicy must also provide options for mitigating the damage that occurs as aresult of a cyber-attack. As mentioned previously, exponential technologyadvancement makes it imperative that the US has a highly skilled cybersecurityworkforce trained on how to address attacks and threats. Congressman Will Hurdof Texas, the chairman of the House Information Technology Subcommittee, arguesthat the US needs to create a “cyber national guard” of highly trainedindividuals specifically designated to fight cyber warfare (Christ, 2017). The governmentmust allocate additional resources to identify and train promising young peopleinterested in working in the field of cybersecurity. This should includeincreased funding for public school programs and scholarships for cybersecuritycamps as well as other extracurricular activities.

            Aspreviously discussed, there are numerous educational programs that encourageyouth to take an interest in professional cyber security. This policyrecommendation supports the suggestions made by National Initiative for CyberSecurity Education (NICE) showing four ways that American schools can preparethe cybersecurity workforce of tomorrow. First, schools should increaseawareness about careers in the cybersecurity field. This can be done through afederal awareness campaign aimed at teaches, administrators, parents andstudents.

In addition, schools can incorporate cybersecurity into camps, clubsand competitions (NICE, 2017). Second, cybersecurity education should beimplemented alongside other STEM education with a demonstration of how theknowledge and skills overlap. Third, the government should stimulate innovationin K-12 education by offering incentives and recognizing improvements ineducator programs for the instructors who will focus on teaching cybersecurityto students. Finally, the government should formally recognize a career pathwayfor high school students that will explicitly prepare them to enter the field(NICE, 2017).             Thispolicy paper recommends that the Department of Education coordinates with NICE,the NSA and other federal agencies to implement educational standards that willincrease awareness of careers in cybersecurity, and promote the development of importanttechnical skills necessary for working in such a career.

In particular, theDepartment of Education should create a curriculum option that streamlines highschool students’ education in order to prepare interested students to enter thefield (NICE, 2017). Schools already offer similar career track curricula forother STEM fields. These can serve as guidelines for developing a career trackfor cybersecurity. Improved Coordination between FederalDepartments and AgenciesCybersecurity is a complicated issuethat requires the coordination of multiple federal departments and agencies,specialists in the private sector and international leaders. While thegovernment agencies manage to prevent tens of thousands of attacks each year,there are still thousands of successful attacks.

There are several barriers tomaximizing the effectiveness of our cybersecurity activities. One of thelargest obstacles is that there is confusion about the multiple different lawson cybersecurity and which agency is responsible for what aspect ofcybersecurity. Defense in cyberspace requires integrating different kinds ofpeople, information sources, and technical capabilities, for protecting assetsthat can be distributed across many systems and physical locations” (Coalitionfor Cybersecurity and Law, 2017, p. 3). Information sharing among this diversegroup of organizations in order to stay ahead of constantly evolving cyberthreats is a monumental task. This section of the policy paper will outline howcybersecurity is delegated among the various departments. It will then makerecommendations for how to improve cybersecurity by streamlining communicationand cooperation.

                      Thefederal government is responsible for national cybersecurity on two fronts.First, it must protect federal systems from cyberattacks. Second, it mustassist the non-government sector in cyber protection (Fischer, 2016). Thegovernment divides responsibilities related to these two obligations amongmultiple agencies and departments.

Which governmental department andcorresponding agency takes the lead in the event of a cyber attack depends onwhat kind of response is necessary. The Department of Justice, particularly theFBI and National Cyber Investigative Joint Task Force (NCIJTF) overseeactivities related to responding to threats (FBI, 2016). This includes directinginvestigations and law enforcement activities and designing and implementingplans to disrupt and mitigate threats (Obama, 2016).         Department of HomelandSecurity             The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is tasked withproviding cybersecurity for the nation’s critical infrastructure. DHS is alsoresponsible 

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