LiteratureReviewTheconstruction industry is recognized as one of the largest consumers of naturalresources (Kibert, 1994). The industry isresponsible for the extraction of up to 60% of natural resources primarily usedas materials for the construction of buildings and infrastructure (Hill, 1997). It is also reportedto contribute to almost half of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,making it one of the principal contributors to global warming (Kibert, 1994). The consumption ofthese natural resources, especially in the construction industry, cannot besustained at present rate. Intoday’s world, there is a growing need for sustainable construction materialsfor construction.
Most of the engineers, contractors, and owners are aware ofthe financial benefits that Green buildings provide in comparison to conventionalbuildings in long run. The trend of sustainability policy is emerging (Jian Zuo?, 2012). However, there areseveral factors that come into play regarding the implementation of thesustainable construction materials.
The critical factors that impede owners inadopting sustainable practices include economic feasibility, awareness, legislationand regulation, support from project stakeholders, sustainable construction issues,resource risk and project management models (Xiaolong Gan, 2015). Whileconsidering the adaptation of sustainable construction materials by contractors,the literature related to sustainable construction was reviewed to depict thecurrent situation and the barriers that impede contractor’s adaptation ofsustainable construction materials was critically analyzed. In previousliterature, several studies focus on the importance and the benefits of sustainableconstruction materials and the sustainability policy from owner’s andcontractor’s perspective. However, there is little to no quantifiable evidencethat illustrates the contractor’s usage of sustainable construction materialsand the critical factors which impede its usage. To fill this gapof information, this paper reports an empirical study that investigates the useof sustainable construction materials from contractor’s perspective.
Introduction a. SustainableConstruction The World Commission on Environment andDevelopment (WCED) define the concept of sustainability as the development thatmeets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs. The 3 core principles ofsustainability identified by the World Summit on Social Development (UN, 2005)are: Fig. 1: Principles of Sustainability In1994, the International Council of Building, CIB, defined the concept ofsustainable construction as the one ”responsible for creating andmaintaining” a healthy built environment based on the efficient use of resourcesand in the project based on ecological principles (Kibert, 1994). b. Sustainable Construction MaterialsConstructionmaterials are used in construction and building whose production is oftenwithin extraction and mining sectors that relies excessively on non-renewableenergy sources. Since the extraction of construction material has a significantimpact on the natural environment, the choice of these materials must focus onnon-toxic materials, materials with low embodied energy, recyclable materials,materials containing wastes from other industries, materials obtained fromrenewable resources, materials with high durability, and others.
In otherwords, the construction materials selected should comply with the three coreprinciples of sustainability, that is, the materials should be environmentally,economically and socially viable.Necessityfor contractors to evolve towards sustainable practices1. Increased profitability2. Competitiveness 3. Ensuring user satisfaction and well-being 4. Respect for people5. Protecting the natural environment6.
Decrease reliance on non-renewable energy and naturalresources and many more.