Life with Genetically Modified Organisms; Turning GM-Oh-no’s into GM-Oh-yes’s!Hannah LoftonMissouri State University?Central Idea: To explain how GMOs play an important role in humanity.Specific purpose: To inform my audience of the benefits that genetically modified organisms bring, the lives they have saved and to dismantle the negative opinion on GMOs.Desired Response: As a result of my speech, my audience will be able to view GMOs in a positive light.Introduction:Imagine a world filled with famine, food restrictions and limited resources. Without the help of genetically altered crops and farms, the recent events of severe weather and human impacts will quickly lead us onto this dark path. The goal of genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, is to feed the world’s malnourished population. By exploring the optimistic side to GMOs, it helps to paint an incredible picture for the Earth’s future. I have spent my time here at Missouri State, studying the environment and the ecosystems as well as how they can safely be manipulated to ensure sustainable life of these plants and animals. This being said, there are careful steps that must be taken to guarantee that the destruction of our ecosystems, does not happen. (Transition: Now let’s learn how we can turn those GM-Oh-no’s into GM-Oh-yes’s!)Body:I. First, I will discuss the background of GMOs. A. Genetically modified organisms, also known as GMOs, are organisms whose genes have been artificially transformed to change their features in some way, whether it is for appearances, nutritional value, or bug resistance. (Panchin,).1. When GMOs were first presented into the user market it was originally announced that they would “help eradicate the world’s food crisis” by creating these ‘super’ plants that yielded more and were resistant to bacteria as well as climate changing impacts like droughts.a. This being said, there are not any simple solutions since there are so many lives involved. b. People who are hungry exist in the same world, at the same time, as those who are over fed.c. All of us, together, must consider the consequences of Genetically Modified Organisms. 2. Food doesn’t need to be viewed as a commodity, but rather as a human necessity on the most basic of levels. a. When companies, as many are familiar with such as Monsanto, and businesses have hidden agendas that are intertwined into people’s food sources, no one wins. B. Introduce Monsanto:1. “Monsanto is a publicly traded American multinational agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation. It is headquartered in Creve Coeur, Greater St. Louis, Missouri. Monsanto is a leading producer of genetically engineered (GE) seed and Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide.” – (Wikipedia)a. “Monsanto has agreed to accept Bayer’s offer to purchase the company for $66 billion ($128/share) in September 2016, and the deal is currently pending regulatory approval.34”- (Wikipedia)b. “A takeover by Bayer could raise US competition concerns because of the sheer size of the combined company and the control it would have over the global seeds and sprays markets. Farming groups have also raised concerns that such mergers could lead to fewer choices and higher prices.” – (Harris, Lauren) (Transition: As in many things of life, there is no true right way or wrong way to handle either of the arguments and so many factors are involved that a ‘simple’ solution is simply not an option.)II. Secondly, I will discuss how GMOs have positively impacted lives across the globe.A. According to Dr. Noah Zerbe, a professor of politics in California, GMOs have positively impacted thousands of lives in Zimbabwe as well as South Africa, a place she has personally visited before. (Joy-Sanchez Taylor) 1. In an interview, Dr. Zerbe describes a nightmare where more than13 million Africans were on the edge of starvation. a. The Malawi president, who listened to advice from a European Union consultant, right before the 2002 famine, sold off all of their country’s reserve stock of corn. b. Malawi also had large debts during this time as well as its people encountering HIV and farmers struggling with heavy floods followed by extremely dry drought seasons (Yuan). c. These were the main factors that caused Zimbabwe to need approximately one million tons of food to help it’s suffering residence, this is when the EU helped provide the countries with genetically modified crops, ones that could provide sustainable farming during the drought seasons.B. GMOs also help with ecological sustainability, creating a positive impact on lives.1. Currently, to show how important it is to have sustainable ecology, wild salmon are being evaluated to see how they interact with genetically modified salmon, also known as AquAdvantage salmon (Phillips). a. This salmon is cross bred with a species called the ocean pout. This species grows at almost double that of a wild born salmon!b. Reasons it is important: they mature quicker, therefor they can go to market quicker. They require less food than wild salmon, therefor can sustain more fish. 2. With every trial there are issues that come along with it:a. Risks: the new salmon is almost 100% sterile, but not completely because if they were to get out into the wild, they could potentially reproduce with wild salmon.b. Because of this, the people who are breeding these new salmon, assure fisheries will only be placed in areas where it is nearly impossible to introduce into the wild. (Transition: GMOs sound like a great idea, although they are not fool-proof yet – but let’s get to the real issue: gmos and chemicals)III. Finally, I will discuss why pesticides and chemicals are commonly related with GMOs.A. For this example, we will go back to Africa, which typically suffers when food supplies decline due to a bug known as the whitefly.1. The whitefly forces many crops to become waste lands. (most insects cause farmers to need to use chemicals and pesticides, but this only leads to health problems)a. Because of bugs similar to, but not as destructive as the whitefly, Nigerian laboratories created a GMO plant that helped to ‘dramatically cut maize losses’ (Phillips).b. The advances of these GMO plants could allow African countries, currently receiving food donations, to feed their own people, without the use of harsh chemicals or insecticides. That’s amazing! (Transition: GMOs can truly be a positive advancement in the world’s agriculture and population.)Conclusion:I. In conclusion, GMOs can create a positive impact on the world around us. II. Today I have informed you on just how genetically modified organisms truly work in the ecosystem.A. I have discussed what GMOs are and the background.B. I have talked about the positive impacts and the thousands of lives the use of GMOs has saved from famine.C. I have also discussed the relationship between GMOs and chemicals and why they are typically linked together.III. Though it is not a without-flaw initiative, GMOs could lead to a bright and sustainable future, leading to the world saying, “GM-Oh-yes!”?References:Gille, Zsuzsa. (27 Oct. 2017) “Social Mobilization, Global Capitalism and Struggles over Food: A Comparative Study of Social Movements.” Contemporary Sociology, journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0094306117734868cc?journalCode=csxa.”GMO Education.” Institute for Responsible Technology, IRT, responsibletechnology.org/gmo-education/.Harris, Lauren. (12 Sept. 2016) “Monsanto-Bayer Merger: The GMO Fear.” Adoreboard, adoreboard.com/monsanto-bayer-merger-gmo-fear/.Joy Sanchez-Taylor. (2017). Fledgling, Symbiosis, and the Nature/Culture Divide. Science Fiction Studies, 44(3), 486-505. doi:10.5621/sciefictstud.44.3.0486″Monsanto.” (5 Dec. 2017) Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monsanto.Panchin, Alexander Y. “Published GMO Studies Find No Evidence of Harm When Corrected for Multiple Comparisons.” Taylor & Francis, 1ADAD, www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/07388551.2015.1130684.Phillips, D. (2017). Collapse, resilience, stability and sustainability in Margaret Atwood’s MaddAddam trilogy. In Johns-Putra A., Parham J., & Squire L. (Eds.), Literature and sustainability: Concept, Text and Culture (pp. 139-158). Manchester: Manchester University Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.proxy.missouristate.edu/stable/j.ctt1wn0s7q.14Trevaskes, S., & Nesossi, E. (2017). CONTROL BY LAW. In Golley J., Jaivin L., & Tomba L. (Eds.), Control (pp. 41-60). Australia: ANU Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.proxy.missouristate.edu/stable/j.ctt1sq5tvf.9Wolter, Felix, and Holger Puchta. (28 Feb. 2017) “Knocking out Consumer Concerns and Regulator’s Rules: Efficient Use of CRISPR/Cas Ribonucleoprotein Complexes for Genome Editing in Cereals.” Genome Biology, BioMed Central, genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-017-1179-1.Yuan, Shupei. (20 July 2017) “Talking Aggressively about GMOs? 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