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Life is the constant struggle to overcome the consequences
that come with being alive. The struggle from the choices you make and the ones
your born to face. The struggle of racial inequality is based on the struggle
of power between racial groups. This power fight would best be analyzed using
the sociological perspective of conflict theory.  In layman’s terms the conflict perspective is
to view the world as a constant fight between the powerful and weak for
resources (Richard 2017). With regards to racial inequality this conflict
perspective struggle is most visible in the education bias across the United States
of America. In the current social climate of America, racial inequality is
prevalent and negatively affects minorities in all aspects of education.

First, to be able to discuss the
topic of how racial inequality effects education scholastically we must first
clarify a few points on the nature of racism. It is almost impossible to
separate and isolate clear statistics of racism. This is because race is inseparable
from class, wealth and health, it is a vastly complex and nuance topic with
exceptions at every corner. A person is defined by the varies statues that are
assigned to them. For many people race is their master status, or statues that
is the most import and influences other statuses (Richard 2017).  Due to
the nature of race being intertwined to many statuses it effects all aspects of
life and has rippling effects. This way of forming groups and fighting is
explained by conflict theory as fighting for limited resources. 

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Racial discriminations shape
the lives of students even before they are born. Red lining a practice that
shaped the very geography of American residential areas and cities. This
practice was most prominent during the 1930s, when the National Housing Act of
1934 was passed. This enabled the government to lend morgues out to whites and
reject minorities from buying homes. James Greer, from the U.S.
Department of the Treasury, stated the following on redlining “Second,
redlining was almost exclusively the result of lending discrimination towards
non-whites. In fact, during the formative years of the modern American
metropolitan complex (1946-1968), there was a dual housing market in which
non-white borrowers found it difficult if not impossible to borrow while in the
white housing market, in contrast, home mortgages were readily available”. (Greer 2012). Some notable points in
this quote is how it was impossible it was for any non-white to own a home.
Making a connection to conflict theory inheritance is one way the powerful
maintain their power over the weak. Red lining was
the beginning of the formation of ghetto in minority communities and maintained
them segregated from whites. This allowed whites gain an economic advantage and
thus raise more property taxes collectively. Thus, enabling better schools and
more resources in white only neighborhoods (Greer 2012). If you had more
money and resources, it is a natural conclusion that schools would better cater
to their students. As apposed to a community where they are not able to afford
food much less pay for better schools. This is a vicious cycle that is still
prevalent today. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development states that
homebuyer who are black learned about 17% fewer homes then their white
counterparts and are shown 17.7% less homes. (Turner et al 2013). This is a
prime example of the powerful (whites) using their status and power to oppress
the weak (minorities). Due to redlining minorities students start off with an
education disadvantages from the moment they are born. In the form of underfunded schools, and more
dangerous communities due to poverty.

Next, we will move on to early
education of minority students. When you think of a toddler or a child, you
think of purity and innocence. Most would think that race discrimination could
not possible be prevalent or even effect such young children. The exact
opposite is turn, childhood is the most influenceable period of a person’s
life. Any event could vastly influence the future of the children. A study done
by the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa to
test threatening Stimuli and young black boy faces. In the study they tested if
objects are view as threatening or no treating when paired with a variety of
faces and ages. The results of the study were “Consistently revealed that
participants had less difficulty (i.e., faster response times, fewer errors)
identifying threatening stimuli and more difficulty identifying nonthreatening
stimuli after seeing Black faces than after seeing White faces”(Todd, Thiem, Neel 2016 ).
This study shows that there is a bias towards even black children as young as 5
years old compared to their white peers. This relates to the conflicts
perspective theory that it is in the very nature of humans to fight for
resources against other groups for resources. In this example we see that not
even young children are free from this bias. This bias directly relates to my
next point, minorities are underrepresented in gifted programs. Gifted programs
allow children to be challenged and set on a track for long term achievements
such as university from a young age. The National Bureau of Economic Research
states that in the third grade only 28% of gifted students were black or
Hispanic(NBER). The most common way to get into a gifted program is through
teacher recommendation. With the prejudice towards minorities even at a young
age, we can conclude that teachers are bias when choosing who is “gifted” due
to their preexisting biases. Minorities the ones that would benefit the most
out of these programs are exactly the ones that are not selected. When this
study then tested out their hypothesis on teacher bias by using a universal
screening process they found a huge increase of minorities and disadvantaged
students. To clarify they did not make lower the standards of “gifted” they used
a more universal test approach they teacher referrals. This gives us critical insight
on how memories are being negated academically. To make a comparison if you kept
telling a child that their artwork is horrible, they would eventually stop trying.
Also, if you ignore the child when he is trying to show you his artwork, he will
also stop trying. It is just a natural human need to be reassured and supported.
Another point on the racial discrimination related to education in society is the
Pygmalion Effect. 

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